Making compost in the country and at home, (for mushrooms) with your own hands
Any plant develops and bears fruit better in fertilized soil. One of the most affordable and widespread fertilizers for a vegetable garden and garden is compost.
In our article, we will tell you about what ingredients can be used to compost compost, how to prepare compost at home or in the garden, what crops this fertilizer is used for, whether it is worth buying ready-made compost and which of the proposed compositions to prefer.
What is compost
Compost (Latin Compositus - compound) Is a fertilizer that is formed during the decomposition of organic substances under the influence of microorganisms. Composting is a natural method of disposal and recycling of organic waste, which improves the structure of the soil and saturates poor or depleted soil with nutrients that plants need. But you should not confuse garden compost with those potting mixes that are sold under this name in garden centers and pavilions. If you compost yourself, this best of all organic fertilizers will cost you free. There are many composting recipes, and we will introduce you to some of them.
What can and cannot be put in compost?
- raw cereals, fruits, vegetables and their peels and trimmings;
- sunflower stalks, corn stalks, vegetable and melon tops, dry leaves, hay cut;
- sleeping tea and coffee grounds;
- leftover food;
- thin branches and shoots, untreated and unpainted wood, including sawdust and chips;
- straw, hulls from seeds, nutshells;
- bird droppings and fresh herbivore manure;
- paper - napkins, packing cardboard, xerox paper and shredded newspapers;
- shredded natural fabrics - flax, cotton, wool, silk, hemp and linen bonfire;
- down and feathers of birds, animal hair.
- large and hard meat bones;
- ash from a stove or fireplace;
- synthetic materials and fabrics;
- peel from citrus plants;
- perennial rhizome weeds, especially in flowering or seeded form;
- plant residues affected by diseases or treated with herbicides;
- insect pests and their larvae.
Experts still have no consensus about whether it is possible to add human and carnivorous faeces to the compost, as well as whether it is possible to add milk, fat, meat and fish residues to the compost.
The process of converting grass, food and household waste into organic fertilizer is conventionally divided into three parts:
- decomposition: at this stage, the waste heats up inside the heap, changes its structure and is enriched with useful substances. As a result of the transformation, beneficial microorganisms, fungi, earthworms appear in the compost, which contribute to the acceleration of the processing of the mass into fertilizer.
- humus formation: at this stage, it is important to ensure aeration of the pile, since without oxygen, microorganisms that organize and carry out the process of compost maturation can die. To provide air access, the mass is mixed with a pitchfork or a shovel;
- mineralization: at the stage of mineralization, decomposition of nitrogenous compounds occurs, and humus passes into mineral forms. The process reaches its maximum value after a year of compost aging.
Why is compost good for you?
Firstly, it is one of the best mineral fertilizers that fill the soil with a huge amount of important microelements.
Secondly, it is the cheapest means for structuring the soil, which is carried out by increasing moisture conservation.
Thirdly, compost is convenient to use as a mulch that slows down the evaporation of moisture from the soil and suppresses the growth of weeds.
Fourth, you no longer have to remove or incinerate organic waste from the site, since it can be laid in a compost pit and turned into an excellent fertilizer.
How to make DIY compost
How to make compost in the country
There are two ways to prepare compost - fast and slow, otherwise known as cold and hot. But first, let's decide on the compost container and the location of this container in the garden. It is best to build a box from wooden planks or any boards that have not come into contact with toxic materials - stain, varnish, paint and the like. If you want the box to serve you for years, make it out of pine planks - it will not cost you much. Knock off the four walls, respecting the gaps between the collecting strips - these slots will serve to aerate the compost.
It is better to place the box (pile) on an elevation so that it does not wash away with water, and away from the garden, otherwise the roots of all plants will change direction and stretch towards the pile with compost. Choose a location, level the surface, dig in four supports and nail three walls to them. It is better to make the fourth wall removable or opening, so that it is convenient for you to stir up the compost or take it out for mulching the beds. It is better to concrete the bottom of the box, or you can cover it with thick plastic wrap or old linoleum.
If you don't feel like bothering about hammering boards together, you can purchase a ready-made plastic or metal composter from the store - a compost container with a lid, the main purpose of which is to prevent the compost from crumbling. The advantage of such containers is that you can add protein waste to them - meat, fish, milk, since they are tightly closed with a lid, and rodents do not enter them. In addition, they retain heat well and can be moved around. And the disadvantage of industrial composters is that they do not receive air. If you are not constrained in funds, buy a local station for the processing of organic matter, which independently maintains the process temperature and is equipped with a control system. In the end, you can make a cylinder of the desired height and width from a chain-link mesh and put waste for composting into it, but it will be inconvenient to get the compost out of such a container and dig up the mass in it.
When can you compost? There is no strict framework in this matter: you can start laying layers in the spring, after pruning trees and shrubs, and replenish the layers as organic material arrives. In autumn, fallen leaves, tops of vegetables and melons can be laid in the compost heap. Advances in modern science even make it possible to produce compost in winter. But first things first.
How to compost? At the bottom of the composter or pile, place chips or branches that will serve as drainage material, and then start filling the composter layer by layer, and the more types of organic matter you put in the compost, the higher its quality will be. Composting involves alternating dry waste with wet and green with brown (nitrogenous with carbonaceous). Waste, which is a source of nitrogen, is laid in the so-called green layer - trimming and cleaning vegetables, small twigs, green tops, and in the brown layer - torn newspapers and other paper containing carbon, fallen leaves and dry twigs. You can enrich the composition of the compost with plants that contribute to the rapid formation of humus - yarrow, dandelion, chamomile, valerian. To speed up fermentation, the compost heap is watered with a solution of mullein or bird droppings. The consistency of the mass should resemble a damp sponge, but moderation should be observed in moistening the compost, since the "flooded" microorganisms will not be able to generate heat that promotes decay.
To maintain the temperature and environment necessary for the process, a homemade composter must be covered with an oilcloth, an old carpet, linoleum or a lid knocked together from tightly-fitting boards. Once or twice a month, the layers of compost should be turned over with a pitchfork to loosen the mass, achieve uniform moisture and stimulate processes that die out due to lack of ventilation. In hot weather, compost is poured with water from time to time to maintain the necessary moisture.
Well, you put compost in the box, now you need to wait for it to rot. The finished compost looks like a dark, moist, crumbly mass that smells like forest soil.
Compost production requires compliance with some rules:
- compost shouldn't smell bad. If the smell of ammonia appears, it means that the processes are proceeding incorrectly, and the mass can turn into poison. In this case, add torn paper to the compost to neutralize the predominance of nitrogen components in it. So that the ammonia formed during fermentation does not leave the pile in the form of a fetid gas, but is processed into nitrogen, the following procedure for filling the container should be observed: each layer of waste should be no more than 50 cm thick, and layers of organic matter are interspersed with layers of soil or manure 5-10 cm thick;
- everything that you put in the compost heap should be pre-crushed, and the greens should be slightly dried so that they are not sour in the compost, but melt;
- before the onset of winter, you need to shovel the entire pile so that the lower layer is at the top, and the upper one is at the bottom;
- the height of the heap should not be more than 1.5 m, and the width should not be less than 1 m, otherwise it will be difficult for you to shovel the mass. The height of the heap is measured a couple of months after the compost is set, as it settles considerably during this time.
Many gardeners prefer to make quick compost: on an elevated site, they dig a shallow (no more than 40 cm), but wide hole, which is filled with broken branches and chopped wood, and thrown with earth on top. In a year or two, you will have an excellent fertilizer for the garden and vegetable garden.
The fastest compost is obtained from leaves: in the fall, fallen leaves are laid in a shallow hole, layered with garden soil, watered with biostimulants (EM preparations - Baikal-M1, Humisol, Tamir, Urgasa or the like) and covered with a black film, and in mid-May this the compost can already be partially used for its intended purpose. To speed up the process, you can put "leaven" from the already rotted compost into the young compost. You can speed up the composting process by such means as a solution of sugar and yeast, which should be abundantly watered with plant residues placed in the composter, or nettle infusion: ¾ poured nettle buckets with warm water, add a packet of dry yeast and put in a warm place for 5 days, after which the infusion is filtered and poured over the compost.
Compost at home
You can make compost at home in the winter.
Do-it-yourself compost at home is easy to make. To do this, you will need:
- plastic bucket;
- garbage bag;
- several plastic half-liter bottles;
- a bottle of EM liquid that speeds up the composting process;
- a plastic sugar bag;
- a package of garden soil or purchased soil.
Make cylinders of the same height out of plastic bottles, cutting off the bottom and neck, and place them on the bottom of the bucket. Place a garbage bag with a few small holes in the bottom of the bin to drain excess liquid and start filling it with chopped plant residues, spraying each 3 cm layer from a spray bottle with an accelerator solution prepared according to the instructions. After moistening the residues, squeeze air out of the bag, tie it tightly and press down with a weight - for example, a five-liter plastic bottle with water. Drain the compost water from the bucket about once every three days - this liquid can be poured down the drain overnight to unclog sewers and sinks. And if you dilute this liquid with water in a ratio of 1:10, you can water indoor plants with it.
As the bag is filled with organic residues, spray each layer with a fermentation stimulator, release air from the bag and set pressure on it - do this until the bag is placed in the bucket. Once the bucket is full, place it along with the compost in the heat for fermentation for a week, then mix the compost with a little garden or garden soil, transfer it to a sugar bag and take it out to the balcony or loggia, where it will now be stored.
Place a new waste bag with water drainage holes in the empty bucket and start the process of collecting and composting all over again. If you do everything correctly, you will not hear an unpleasant smell. A sour odor can occur simultaneously with the appearance of white mold on the surface of the compost - this is a sign that the process is not proceeding correctly. To fix the situation, add finely chopped newspapers or other paper to the bucket. Place the second portion of the matured compost in the bag containing the first batch of fertilizer. Ready-made homemade compost can be poured into the pots of indoor plants, added to the seedling substrate, or taken to the country and used as fertilizer or mulch.
Compost for mushrooms
Compost in bags
Growing champignons is now a very profitable business, and many are adapting to growing these mushrooms in their basements - this method is called intensive, as opposed to extensive, when mushrooms are cultivated in natural conditions. Mushrooms are grown in different ways, but the most effective method is growing in bags: it does not require high financial costs, and mushrooms diseased in one bag do not infect mushrooms in neighboring bags. The only drawback of this method can be considered only that the filling of the substrate in the bags requires significant physical effort. The compost in bags is placed on the floor in parallel or staggered, and the staggered arrangement saves production space.
A high yield of mushrooms can only be obtained on a nutrient medium, and this requires a compost-based substrate. Compost for growing mushrooms, like garden fertilizer, can be prepared by yourself. For 100 kg of wheat or rye straw, you will need 100 kg of horse manure, 8 kg of gypsum, 5 kg of chalk, 2 kg of superphosphate and urea. The straw is cut to a length of 15-20 cm, poured with water for 2-3 days so that it does not get wet, but moistens, then they put three or four layers of straw in a pile or box in a queue with layers of manure, adding compost fertilizer - all the urea and part of the superphosphate (500 g). Then the mass is thoroughly mixed, gypsum is added, then the remainder of superphosphate, then chalk, and after adding each ingredient, the compost is thoroughly mixed each time - only 4 times. The output is 300 kg of substrate - this amount should be enough for laying 3 m² of mycelium.
If you use not horse, but bird droppings, then the proportions will be different: for 100 kg of droppings and 100 kg of straw, 300 liters of water, 8 kg of gypsum are required, and instead of superphosphate and chalk, alabaster is used.
The compost for mushrooms should mature in the open air in a place protected from the sun and rain for three weeks - during this time the components "burn out", the ammonia completely evaporates, and the compost can be used: about 15 kg of compost mass are placed in special perforated bags and mycelium is planted in it.
Compost in boxes
The box mushroom growing system was developed in the United States in 1934 and is still popular today in the United States, Canada and Australia.Growing mushrooms in boxes, as well as in bags, allows you to localize the defeat of fungi by diseases and pests and provides an opportunity to keep mushrooms at different stages of development in different rooms.
The boxes are made from spruce, birch or alder boards. The volume of the boxes can be from 0.4 to 2 m², and the optimal depth of the containers is 12-15 cm. Before use, they are disinfected with a 4% formalin solution or a 2% lysol solution. As for the substrate, the method for its preparation is the same as for growing mushrooms in bags.
Ready-made compost - is it worth buying
If you have no time to compost or are afraid of not being able to cope with this task, you can, of course, purchase ready-made compost. The product of Biud has proven itself well - a universal, concentrated and environmentally friendly biocompost, which can be used both for ornamental crops and for fruit and berry crops. To create this biofertilizer, both traditional methods of composting and the latest Finnish technologies are used. The basis for the compost of this brand is horse and low-lying peat, cattle or horse manure, poultry and fur-bearing carnivorous animal droppings. Chopped straw, sawdust of deciduous trees, dolomite flour, vermiculite and other natural preparations are used as additives. By the name of the compost, you can determine what type of manure is used in it - "Cow", "Horse", "Chicken". There is also a biocompost in the series, created to fertilize the soil in autumn, it is called “Autumn”.
The use of compost during planting has a fruitful effect on vegetable crops - one tablespoon of fertilizer is applied to the holes. 2-3 glasses of fertilizer are placed in the pits of berry bushes, and a liter jar of compost is placed in the pits of fruit trees.
Compost for mushrooms is also not in short supply - you can buy it both loose and in briquettes. However, you should still try to make compost yourself, because it will take very little effort, and all the necessary ingredients are waste of your life. Start collecting and layering organic waste at home as described in our article, and the first bucket of your own compost will inspire you both to build a large garden fertilizer box and to start a compost heap. As a result, you will always have high-quality and free organic fertilizer in your garden.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
Sections: Fertilizers Gardening
All about mushroom compost
The compost for mushrooms must necessarily contain a sufficient amount of nutrient compounds to provide normal conditions for the growth and development of mushrooms. In specialized retail outlets, you can purchase a ready-made version, but it is quite possible to cook it yourself.
Description of champignon mushrooms
Champignons belong to the Champignon family of the same name, of the Agaric order, which includes more than 60 different types of cap mushrooms. In nature, various types of champignons grow in the forest, in meadows among the grass, in open areas without grassy cover, and even in the desert.
By the nature of their nutrition, champignons are characteristic saprophytic mushrooms, therefore, representatives of the mushroom family prefer humus-rich soils for habitation, grow well on pastures manured by cattle, as well as in forests with thick vegetation rich in decaying organic compounds. In industrial mushroom growing, mainly 2 types of these mushrooms are bred: two-pore champignon and two-ring four-spore champignon; cultivation of field and meadow champignons is less common.
According to the description, the champignon is a hat mushroom with a pronounced central stem 4–6 cm high. The diameter of the cap of industrial champignons varies from 5 to 10 cm, but it can reach 30 cm or more.
Champignon is one of the few hat mushrooms that can be eaten raw. Raw mushrooms in Mediterranean cuisine are used in salads, for making sauces and as slices with various sour dressings.
In the initial phase of mushroom growth, the cap has the shape of a bell or hemisphere; as the mushroom matures, it takes on a convex-outstretched shape.
By the color of the cap, mushrooms are divided into 4 main groups: snow-white, milky, cream and light brown, which are often called royal. Sometimes white mushrooms and milk mushrooms are combined into one group. The plates of fungi change with the age of the fruiting body: in a young mushroom, they are light, white-pink, as they reach puberty, the plates darken to a red-brown color, and in old mushrooms they turn dark brown with a transition to burgundy-black.
The following is a detailed description of how to grow mushrooms in a basement or cellar.
How to prepare compost for growing mushrooms at home
When preparing compost at home, you must observe the dosage of these components. With a lack of certain substances, the fermentation process may not proceed correctly, or it may not start at all.
The composting process takes as a whole from 20 to 25 days... During this time, the substances enter into a reaction and, under the influence of manure enzymes, turn into a ready-made substrate. The ammonia odor is gradually removed and the compost becomes dark brown. The finished compost is wet - when squeezed, water comes out. At the same time, it should not drip - this indicates an excess of moisture.
Step-by-step instructions for making compost for mushrooms
The process of making compost for mushrooms begins with soaking the straw. You can load it into containers with water, or simply use a hose to water the hay spread out on the concrete. The duration of the procedure is 2 - 3 days. At the end of soaking, the hay must be divided into 4 equal parts for even distribution in the pile (composting site).
Next, the straw is shifted with manure: a layer of straw, a layer of manure. If you are using chicken manure, you do not need to add urea. In other cases, the layers are sprinkled with nitrogen-containing substances in equal proportions. The finished stack should be one to one and a half meters high. In this form, it is left for 5 - 6 days.
After that, the first interruption is done, that is, mixing and loosening the layers. This is done in order to enrich the mixture with oxygen for the fermentation process. In this case, gypsum and, if necessary, water are added. It is necessary to wait another 4 days until the next interruption.
On the next loosening, add chalk and superphosphate. If the mixture dries up, add water.
Composting video for chapignons
Thus, it is necessary to make two more interruptions, after which the compost is considered ready. Mixing the layers is necessary for the development of microorganisms that carry out fermentation. During this period, ventilation is especially important: both for the compost and for the person who monitors the process (the smell that is released during fermentation is very strong and sharp).
During the preparation of the substrate, you need to check the temperature in the lower layers: if everything goes according to plan, then by the third day it already reaches about 50-60 degrees. This is called the "burning" process of the compost. Combustion can be disrupted with insufficient or excessive humidity (a hygrometer does not interfere with this).
Towards the end of the composting process, the temperature drops and the substrate becomes loose. If there is an excess of water, then gypsum can be added.
When the temperature drops to 24 degrees, the finished substrate can be laid out in boxes or on racks, and mushroom mycelium can be added.
Heat treatment of finished compost
Heat treatment of the compost is necessary to rid the soil of pests and pathogens. It takes place in two stages:
- The temperature is raised to 59 degrees. Under such conditions, pests die - nematodes, various types of mold, insects, competing fungi. Especially big losses for mushroom pickers are caused by mold, which develops in the casing layer. There are many species that are distinguished mainly by color. It is important to prevent the appearance of a disease in the mycelium by properly heating the mixture.
- The second stage is conditioning. It ensures the development of thermophilic microflora. At this stage, the remaining ammonia is eroded away or absorbed by microorganisms. Optimum temperatures are from 42 to 52 degrees.
Video: heat treatment with a steam generator
After pasteurization of the compost mixture, it can be used. First, it is necessary to disinfect the premises where the mushrooms will grow. This is done with lime and copper sulfate, sulfuric checker or chlorophos.
This is followed by planting mushrooms in the form of grain mycelium or spores. At this stage, the ambient temperature is also controlled, since during the germination of mycelium, there are some conditions, and during the growth of mushroom bodies, others.
How to compost and where to place
Making compost at home is a long process, but not too hard. A large plastic container, a wooden box with openings for air circulation, or a large barrel is suitable for storage. You can also dig a shallow hole. The place selected for the compost heap should not be located anywhere. Requires a well-drained area, protected from sun and wind, away from moisture-loving plants.
The optimal size of the pit directly depends on the required amount of raw materials. Often the width and depth do not exceed 1-2 m. The bottom is covered with coarse material: straw, broken brick, gravel, twigs or chips. This will help remove excess moisture and protect against weeds. Then the layers of organic matter and earth are alternated. The layer of plant components should be 40-45 cm, soil - 10 cm. To prevent the pile from drying out in the open air, it is covered with a layer of leaves or straw.
The more various types of organic matter are in the composition, the more qualitative and useful the mixture will be. A weak solution of mullein or bird droppings will help speed up the decomposition of the components.
Compost composition - what can and cannot be added
Each gardener has his own recipe for creating fertilizer. But do not consider the compost pit to be a universal waste bin, because you can only use a specific set of ingredients:
- cut grass
- hay and dry straw dust
- dry deciduous mass
- sawdust, shavings
- wood ash and coal
- a piece of chalk
- coffee grounds and tea leaves
- plants without seeds
- shells from raw eggs
- food cleaning
- bird droppings and herbivore manure
- shredded paper and cardboard products.
There are also those components that absolutely must not be put into the compost pit. Some of them rot for a long time and cause an unpleasant odor, while others are susceptible to infections and fungi:
- meat food
- citrus peels
- thermally processed fruits and vegetables
- plants affected by diseases and fungi
- synthetic materials
- chemical substances.
What components can be used for composting
We learned how to make compost, now we need to figure out which ingredients are suitable for this. Symbolically, all components can be attributed to two types:
Components with an increased level of nitrogen, in another way they are called green mass. These include:
- cultivated herbs
- massive parts of vegetable and fruit and berry plants
This content stabilizes the carbon and nitrogen balance of humus:
Components with carbon or brown mass. This includes tree sawdust, straw, fallen leaves, cut branches, shredded and soaked cardboard and paper waste. They are high in fiber, which feeds beneficial bacteria. These components are also involved in loosening the biomaterial and saturating it with useful substances.
Before placing all the components in the compost heap, they must be crushed. Then the processing time will be reduced. It is also important to make the correct bookmark, alternating a layer of green mass with a layer of brown. This layered arrangement will saturate the compost with oxygen and accelerate its maturation.
How to properly lay the compost layers?
Plant residues should be placed in layers 15-25 cm thick. If the compost layers are thicker, the decay process will take place more slowly. The components from which the compost heap is made must be thoroughly mixed. The first layer of compostable material should be sprinkled with a layer of garden soil (2-3 cm) with the addition of lime.
Green manure plants... The protein-rich green mass decomposes quickly without causing problems. Before laying, you need to let it dry, lay in layers, alternating with coarser materials.
Hay and straw... These valuable materials bind moisture in the compost, provide it with a good porous structure, which facilitates the access of oxygen. Before laying, grind them thoroughly, mix with nitrogen-containing green mass of compostable plants, kitchen organic waste and put them in compost in thin layers.
Fallen leaves... Poor in nutrients. So that they do not get lost in lumps, they should be dried, it is advisable to grind them and put them in compost in thin layers, mixing with other plant and coarser materials. When composting oak leaves containing large quantities of tannic acid, it is desirable to add fluffy lime (for 10 kg of foliage - 200-300 g of lime).
Wood shavings... They are characterized by a low nitrogen content and are very poorly decomposed; therefore, it is necessary to thoroughly mix them with the green mass of plant material, add bone meal and add manure to increase the nitrogen content and accelerate decomposition.
Tree bark... Compared to sawdust, it has a higher nitrogen content, but nevertheless requires the introduction of nitrogen-containing additives: bird droppings or manure, urea. It is also recommended to introduce lime at the rate of 100 g for every 10 kg of bark to accelerate the decomposition process.
Food waste... They are valuable organic matter and are characterized by a high decomposition rate. To prevent decay processes, food waste should be mixed with a coarser material that provides adequate ventilation (for example, wood chips).
Manure... Due to its high nitrogen content, it is very favorable for compost, it is a catalyst for decomposition processes. It is recommended to sprinkle the manure on top with earth.
Paper... It decomposes well thanks to the cellulose it contains. Before putting it into compost, paper should be crushed and wetted (preferably in herbal infusion) so that it absorbs additional nutrients along with moisture. Lay out in thin layers, combining with coarse material, otherwise the wet paper will get into lumps, and this will complicate the decomposition process.
How to grow mushrooms in the open field in the country?
In addition to the most commonly used "basement" method of growing mushrooms described above, there are other alternatives. For example, how to grow mushrooms at home, namely, at their summer cottage. Sometimes, for some reason (lack of a basement, garage or other suitable premises), the desire to grow these mushrooms seems impossible. But if you are the happy owner of a summer cottage, everything is feasible!
The most successful period for this is summer and autumn, here it is also important to choose a comfortable place.Champignons - where do they grow? In shaded places, on specially prepared soil, the place for the mycelium should be moderately moist, the earth should not dry out, the sun's rays should not illuminate the chosen place too much. To protect against drought on hot days, the beds are often covered with plastic wrap or special covering material to create a certain microclimate. It is important to bring mushrooms as close as possible to conditions similar to their natural growth environment. Since we cannot influence the weather conditions, we must try to give the mushrooms moisture - when they need it, as well as the availability of fresh air.
In the garden under the trees, photo:
After sowing the mycelium in the beds, in the open field, growing champignons - their technology, practically does not differ from the rules for growing in a cellar. After a couple of weeks, the "cobwebs" of mycelium grow over the soil surface, at this point the temperature is lowered by sprinkling the soil surface with a thin (up to 5 cm) layer of moist earth. The temperature, similarly, should vary within +12 .. + 15 С °, but in no case should it reach above +20 С °. As in the above method, it will be much more productive if this land contains peat and limestone. Regular watering (or rather, delicate irrigation) is best done after sunset - this will optimally moisten the soil, prevent the formation of a dense earth crust. With the right approach to business, in about 3-4 weeks you can expect a harvest of your own mushrooms.
Mycelium sprouts cobwebs, photo:
Let's summarize how to grow mushrooms in the country:
- It is better to plant mycelium or spores on soil specially prepared for this. This can be soil brought from the forest zone.
- The soil should be optimally saturated with fertilizing, be well moistened, not have stones, brick fragments or remnants of old roots.
- It is best to plant mushrooms outdoors at a neutral air temperature - +21 .. + 22 C °.
- If a greenhouse is chosen for planting, you should carefully monitor the level of humidity and air temperature in it. The conditions are not very different from the basement or garage cultivation of mushrooms. It should be remembered that heat and drought are destructive for them.
- As already mentioned, the planting technique does not differ from the "basement" analogue (20 cm from each other, shallow pits, dusting with soil mixture after the appearance of the "cobweb").
- With the receipt of the first mushrooms, the abundance of watering can be reduced (so that the roots do not rot), irrigation is our everything in this matter.
After all the waves of the mushroom harvest come to naught, the spent substrate can be simply disposed of, or it can be quite successfully used as an organic fertilizer or mulch for some trees or even flower beds. Of course, for re-growing mushrooms, it is no longer suitable, but as an excellent top dressing for your green inhabitants, it will quite serve. As for all kinds of containers, boxes after harvesting and composting, they will require mandatory disinfecting treatment, as well as the room where the mushrooms were grown.