Chrysanthemum - Chrysanthemum
The chrysanthemum plant.
The golden flower - this is the literal translation from the Greek of the name of the chrysanthemum - belongs to the Composite family (one of the most numerous in the botanical field, after the Orchidaceae): the origin of the plant is totally Asian, since the first specimens were found in Chinese and Japanese territory, in particular in the Japanese nation on chrysanthemum it is extremely popular. The main feature that immediately catches the eye of the plant is, undoubtedly, its bushy structure, with an inflorescence (the so-called "flower head") which is isolated at the apex of the stem in case we are faced with standard flowers . We talked about inflorescence and, in this sense, it should also be specified that it is made up of hermaphrodite flowers as far as the disc is concerned and of female peripheral flowers which instead make up the radius of the flower head.
The traditional cultivation is that for cut flower, with a flowering that takes place in the period of late October-November, usually coinciding with the commemoration of the dead, a peculiarity that often leads to associate this plant with the recurrence. However, there is also the possibility of a programmed culture in the greenhouse, making adequate use of lighting or darkening. Furthermore, the chrysanthemum is a short-day species, which means that for its complete flowering it is necessary that the length of the day is less than fourteen hours of light; if this does not happen, then the flowering will not take place either and the growth will be exclusively vegetative.
The more traditional aspects of flowering
How should one behave precisely in relation to the flowering itself? The end of October is the most suitable month for what concerns the normal flowering, but if you want to obtain a delay in this sense, therefore an extension also to the months of December, January, February, March and April, you will have to resort the use of artificial light (the most used method is that of incandescent lamps, the most intense for this purpose). Nor should we forget that the number of hours of light increases as the day shortens in its duration: in this way, it will be two hours in September every night for four weeks and five hours a night in December-January. . Artificial light should be given to plants between midnight and two in the morning, the most ideal way to interrupt the period of darkness, which should not be longer than seven hours. The flashing light, on the other hand, is the ideal solution for cost savings.
Is there a precise method to have an early flowering in May, June, July, August and September? The answer is affirmative: in this case, it is sufficient to obscure the plants with black polyethylene sheets from 7pm to 8am the next morning; darkening begins one month after the cuttings are planted to obtain a longer stem. The black sheets must be kept in place until the inflorescence begins to show its color. Black polyethylene causes an increase in humidity and a consequent attack of parasites. Chrysanthemum can also be grown to produce potted flowering plants. It is a crop that has expanded a lot in recent years, due to changing consumer tastes, a sort of emancipation of the plant from the sad name of "flower of the dead". The species is in great demand throughout the year and this is possible thanks to the great variety of shapes (among the best known we can mention spider and pompon): the flower pots can be obtained in normal times, therefore in November or in the various periods of the year, but in this second hypothesis, at least three crops per year are required. The programmed cultivation is quite simple: it is in fact sufficient to divide the greenhouse into two parts, a small one in which the long-day treatment is carried out (the plants remain there for about four weeks) and another in which there are black sheets for the blackout.
The most common species
Among the main species of the chrysanthemum we can certainly remember the numerous hybrids of the Chrysanthemum Indico, the so-called "blackish daisy", a spontaneous perennial plant, the matricale, with its typical double flowers with intense and lively colors and the bushy Coto Grande.
Plant diseases and pathology
The main diseases of chrysanthemum derive mainly from fungi (rust and white rust), but also from viruses such as aspermia, mosaic, nerve maculation, rickets and bronzing. Furthermore, numerous insects can damage the chrysanthemum, some by sucking the sap with a consequent debilitation of the plant (green aphid, black bean aphid, brown chrysanthemum aphid and other hemiptera). Serious damage to the flowers is also caused by earwig, one of the main skin bacteria.
The Asian popularity of the chrysanthemum derives not only from its diffusion and variety of colors, but also from the fact that the ligules of the plant, properly fried, are considered a real culinary delight. In Japan, the chrysanthemum is considered the national flower, so much so that every year its beauty is celebrated and it has earned the nickname "flower of life and happiness".
How to grow chrysanthemums
Chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum L., 1753) are a genus of plants from the Asteraceae family, with numerous hybrids and varieties grown as ornamental plants in floriculture and gardening. The chrysanthemum, flower used in Italy for the feast of the dead, includes about 200 species of annuals, perennial, herbaceous and bushy, with the shape of the flower and flowering period from late spring until the arrival of frost. In this fact sheet we will see however the general principles for how to grow chrysanthemums and the most appropriate techniques. It is a kind that adapts to very different soils but with preference for substrates with neutral or slightly acidic pH, preferably dissolved, well drained and rich of well humified organic substance. The water requirement is medium-high under conditions that never create stagnations, whether the cultivation is in the ground or in the pot. Obviously in the vase it is good to prepare, as usual, a lower layer of coarse material (expanded clay, coarse gravel, etc.) to favor the drainage of excess water. In this case the soil must be composed of three identical parts of common ground taken from your garden, sand and soil for flowering plants.
The exposure of the plant must be sunny and if it is grown in the open field it is good to protect the plants with a vegetable mulch, both to decrease the summer evaporation and contain better weeds, and to protect the roots from the winter cold. To fertilize the substratum it is necessary to act with a well humified fertilizer (excellent mature manure in the open field) and the soil for flowers enriched with macro and microelements for the cultivation in pot. In the open field the fertilization should be done in the period of late winter-early spring mixing the fertilizer with the first layers of earth taking care not to disturb the roots in pots you can use liquid fertilizers to be applied from spring, with a higher frequency in summer. For a good color of the flowers it is good that the fertilizers are well equipped also with potassium.
After flowering (with perfectly dried flowers) the chrysanthemum should be cimato, shortening the stems, orientating the plant to a length of about 20 cm. This allows the plant to bloom well and abundantly the following year. Another technique, often not adopted, is that of pruning that must be performed twice a year, at the end of May and in mid-August. Taking care to eliminate the dry, weaker or damaged shoots, in order to thin out the vegetation that does not help the good vegetation and then bloom the chrysanthemums. Moreover, if the variety of chrysanthemums is perennial, this allows plants to live longer.
For propagation and multiplication of the chrysanthemum, the best technique is the thinning of the plants, uprooting them with great delicacy, taking care to wet the substratum well first to damage the roots less.
Among the adversities of the chrysanthemums, even if it is a very resistant kind, we still remember the mites or the rust. They can be determined by various factors, such as excess and nitrogen moisture in the substrate. Overcoming this should decrease considerably and in any case the use of preventive nettle macerates would give greater strength and resistance to plants.
Facts about Chinese Chrysanthemum
|Chinese Chrysanthemum Quick Facts|
|Scientific Name:||Chrysanthemum indicum|
|Origin||The plant is inherent to East Asia-Eastern China and Central and Southern Japan.|
|Shapes||Achene, cuneateoblong, compressed|
|Health benefits||Treatment for hypertension, inflammation, respiratory disease, whooping cough, sore eyes|
- In Oriental traditional medicine, it is used for treating colitis, pneumonia, cancer, stomatitis, sores, fever, intoxication, inflammatory diseases, pertussis, vertigo, hypertension, respiratory ailments and hypotensive symptoms.
- In Southeast Asia and India, the plant is used as blood tonic, antiphlogistic, antipyretic, aperient, vulnerary, febriguge and is used for treating eye ailments.
- It is used for treating hypertension, inflammation and respiratory diseases.
- The plant is used in India with black pepper for treating gonorrhea, calculi, brain affects and also used as an antidote for mental depression.
- In Malaya, the plant is used for headaches, colds and as a poultice for sores.
- The flower or entire plant is useful for whooping cough.
- In Vietnam, flowers are used for treating fever, cold, vertigo, photopsia, dacryolithiasis, ophthalmia, hypertension, amblyopia, xerophthalmia, phlegmon, furunculus and boils.
- Apply the poultice made from flowers externally for curing furunculosis.
- Flowers are used as a tonic for alleviating cough and use it externally for lowering bruising.
- Flowers emulsion is used for cervix infections.
- Flowers are used for treating sore eyes in Malaya.
- In Guan, flowers infusion is used as an aid for intermittent fevers and used by women to aid menstrual problems and hysteria.
- In Indochina and China, leaves are used for treating migraine.
- In Japan, flower heads are consumed by marinating in vinegar.
- In China, it is used as vegetables.
- Use the dried flowers in mixed spices or as food additives to add flavor.
- It could be used in the form of herbal tea or beverages after sweetening with honey or sugar.
- Allergic people should not use it.
- Use it in moderate amounts.
- Consult the health practitioner for use.
Speaking of white chrysanthemums, it is impossible not to tell about the legends associated with this magnificent flower. One of them says: once an evil dragon decided to steal the sun, but, squeezing it, it burned its paws a lot. In a rage, the dragon began to tear the fireball into small pieces. The solar sparks that fell to the ground turned into elegant white chrysanthemums.
No less interesting is the legend, which has spread to China. During the reign of an incredibly cruel emperor, a rumor spread across the country that a chrysanthemum grows on a nearby island, the juice of which is the main ingredient in the elixir of life. However, a person with a sincere and pure heart must choose a flower, otherwise the plant will simply lose its miraculous power. The emperor sent three hundred beautiful girls and strong young men to the island. However, it is not yet known whether they managed to find this plant or not, because no one has returned from the island: the young people simply founded a new state there.
Online Language Dictionaries
WordReference English- Spanish Dictionary © 2021:
|chrysanthemum n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc.||(large, showy flower)||chrysanthemum n nombre masculino: Sustantivo de género exclusively masculino, que lleva los artículos el or a en singular, y los or unos en plural. Exemplos: el televisor, un piso.|
|All of the bridesmaids carried small bouquets of pink chrysanthemums.|
|Is something important missing? Report an error or suggest an improvement.|
WordReference English- Spanish Dictionary © 2021:
pale chrysanthemum aphid n noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc.
|(plant pest)||pulgón n nombre masculino: Sustantivo de género exclusively masculino, que lleva los artículos el or a en singular, y los or unos en plural. Exemplos: el televisor, un piso.|
|Is something important missing? Report an error or suggest an improvement.|
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Chrysanthemum morifolium is the scientific name for an old fashioned favorite commonly known as garden mum or florist's chrysanthemum. It is a perennial herb, 60 to 150cm high. It is native to Asia and northeastern Europe. Most of them are cultivated but there are some from the wild. It is collected in batches between September and November, especially when flowers bloom. Due to its higher nutritive value it is grown worldwide nowadays.
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