Best Ways to Treat Tomato Top Rot in a Greenhouse
It cannot be considered a non-infectious disease or rot that affects a tomato in a greenhouse. First of all, this is a decrease in the yield by almost a third, which may entail a decrease in income if the tomatoes were grown commercially. But if you follow simple preventive measures during their cultivation, you can prevent a lot of troubles, one of which is the top rot. We will talk about ways to fight and treat this scourge in the article.
Where does top rot on tomatoes come from?
There are quite a few factors influencing the onset of the disease:
- high temperature conditions, insufficient humidity... Scientists believe that this is the main reason. On dry and hot days, moisture evaporates from the foliage, the roots are not able to timely replenish the plant with the required amount of water. The consequence of this is the outflow of water from the fruits to the leaves, from which a certain number of tomato cells simply die off;
- low levels of calcium in the earth. On such a land, the appearance of apical rot is most likely;
- the danger is and saline soil areas.
Gardeners are often to blame for the onset of the disease. They did not show concern for the balance of mineral components in the soil, irrigated irregularly.
The disease can be of a dual nature, associated with a fungal or agronomic origin. Tomatoes can be affected by fungal spores that are buried in the ground and transmitted to healthy bushes through the air.
Bushes often become infected seed material, which at one time was harvested from affected tomatoes. In this case, the disease is caused by disturbances in plant care.
Its cause is insufficient amount of calcium, irrigation irregularities, sudden changes in temperature regimes at night and daytime.
The affected part of the tomato does not soften, the tissue becomes dark brown, sometimes even black. When treating a culture, it is necessary to organize control over the air temperature in the greenhouse, ventilate it, water the plants correctly, using warm water for this.
Its main cause is bacteria. The disease manifests itself already in the initial phase of growth. When the humidity rises, the affected areas become softer, a special smell appears.
The pathogen can be carried by nightshade crops or insects. Often, the pathogen is already in the seed, so you will have to deal with top rot from the moment of sowing. You just need to soak the planting material in a manganese solution to disinfect it.
If greenhouse tomatoes get sick with apical rot, all plant residues should be carefully removed and burned.
Top rot methods and treatment
Methods for protecting tomatoes from this disease are fully determined by the reasons for its appearance - dry soil and lack of calcium.
It is necessary watering in a timely manner, do not bring the soil to dryness and overheating. Foliar top dressing is also used, in which special formulations are used.
If the plants do not have enough calcium, an excellent solution would be to treat plants with preparations that, in addition to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, also contain boron and calcium. Such a mixture acts synergistically, the components increase the activity of each other.
Another measure - chemical product Brexil Cacontaining up to fifteen percent calcium and half a percent boron. It is used during foliar dressing, diluting with water at the rate of ten grams per ten-liter bucket. The procedure is recommended to be performed once every fifteen days.
Should not be neglected liming - an excellent measure to help saturate the soil with calcium. This procedure is best performed in the autumn, when the crop is fully harvested.
The main way to fight is to prevent the disease. First of all, you should not create favorable conditions for it.
- choose for growing plants moisture-consuming land... If the soil in the greenhouse is too light, it is necessary to add peat and turf soil to it, which will help to retain water;
- on the eve of planting, you should not add a lot of fertilizing compositions so as not to overfeed the crop
- do not plant bushes too densely in the greenhouse. Tomato plants must be pinned and formed in a timely manner;
- watering should be carried out regularly, using a sufficient amount of moisture;
- via mulching there will be a good opportunity to retain moisture in the soil, only the layer will have to be changed once a week. For this, mowed grass, nettles, weeds without seeds, compost, dry straw, white covering material are suitable;
- in hot weather it follows ventilate the greenhouseshade the plants with a white cloth. If the greenhouse is made of glass, then it can be whitewashed with lime.
Other sources of infectious disease are water, soil, weeds of nightshade crops, harmful parasites... So, comprehensive measures for any bacterial disease will be appropriate. This is especially important if similar diseases have already been noted on the plantings in the past years.
Such activities should include the collection and destruction of vegetation remnants, affected tomatoes, the fight against harmful parasites and weeds, the observance of crop rotation and the alternation of plants.
If it is not possible to alternate crops, then between seasons it is recommended in the beds sow green manure, which after cultivation will be embedded in the soil.
Greenhouses with top rot on tomatoes are ventilated, disinfected, and the soil in them is completely changed.
Using the above recommendations, you can perfectly protect your tomato plants from top rot, provide normal conditions for their growth and development. In this case, you can be sure that the culture will reward you with a good harvest.
How to deal with top rot on tomatoes
Violation of agricultural techniques for growing tomatoes often leads to the development of diseases of various nature. Among physiological diseases, the top rot is a danger to tomatoes. Its appearance is often missed because the bushes look healthy, but the tips of the fruits begin to dry out. Such a crop is no longer suitable for conservation as a whole. It is not suitable for sale either, since it loses its presentation.
Non-infectious top rot
The cause of non-infectious vertex rot can be both a lack of calcium, irregular irrigation, and strong drops in night and day temperatures in the greenhouse. To distinguish the infectious or non-infectious nature of the disease, it is necessary to examine the affected fetus itself. In this case, it is enough to reveal that the affected apical part does not soften, and the tissue is dark brown, sometimes even black. If non-infectious apical rot of tomatoes does occur, treatment should begin with monitoring and regulating the ambient temperature in the greenhouse. Timely airing, in case of abnormal daytime heat and cold nights, will not help much, but it is quite possible to regulate irrigation, carry out them regularly, with warm water.
How to deal with top rot on tomatoes with top dressing? When the first signs of damage to tomatoes are found, it is necessary to carry out regular calcium foliar dressing.
To do this, you need to prepare a solution of calcium nitrate at the rate of 5 g per bucket of water and treat all plants and the surrounding land 2 times a week. This treatment can be carried out for prophylactic purposes.
Irrigation balance and calcium deficiency are interrelated. The fact is that in the soil there is absolutely enough of such an element as calcium, but in conditions of low humidity, this element becomes unavailable to the tomato. By balancing irrigation, adjusting the water-elementary process of digestibility, you can easily eliminate the top rot without going into additional measures. If the temperature is very high and the leaf plates evaporate a significant amount of water, watering once a week is unacceptable. Daily watering is a must for tomatoes.
If top rot bothers tomatoes from year to year, remember if the soil was properly prepared when laying the greenhouse. If it is not possible to analyze the soil, liming of the soil should be carried out in the fall. Adding lime and ash for the autumn digging will also help to cope with the problem.
Rotate the crop. Avoid growing tomatoes and other nightshades in a greenhouse for 1-2 seasons. The soil will heal and the top rot will leave your greenhouse.
Top rot of tomato in a greenhouse can sometimes take up to 15% of the crop. By properly preparing the soil and seeds, airing and watering, keeping the greenhouse clean, you can easily eliminate the disease, whatever its nature.
Symptoms and external signs
If the onset of the disease is determined in a timely manner, then you can effectively deal with it. Apical rot affects fruits starting from the area of flower attachment. In many varieties, this part is hidden from view, therefore, in order to determine the presence of infection in time, you need to periodically carefully examine the bushes.
At the beginning of infection, an almost imperceptible watery spot appears on the top of the fruit. Over time, the skin around it acquires a brown tint and becomes dry. The surface appears to be depressed.
Externally, the size of the damage may be small, but significant changes occur internally:
- bacteria appear on the infected part of the skin, which penetrate into the fetus
- tomato pulp darkens and rots
- the seeds are also affected.
One of the distinctive external signs of apical rot is that the affected fruit begins to ripen earlier than others.
How does olive spot develop?
A small speck forms at the point of introduction of the parasite. The more resistant the plant is, the smaller its size. A dense velvety formation forms on the back of the leaf at the site of the lesion.
As it spreads, cladosporia spreads over an ever larger area of leaves. Yellow-green spots merge, turn yellow and turn brown. Affected leaves dry up and die off. The disease moves up to the next tier. Mass infection leads to damage to flowers and ovaries. The taste of the fruit deteriorates.
Disease Resistant Tomato Varieties
It is possible to prevent infection of tomato plantations by growing a crop of the correct varietal affiliation. Certain varieties and hybrids are distinguished by resistance to fungi, viruses, bacterial infections.
However, it should be understood that vegetation cannot resist all diseases equally well.
So, bushes that are not prone to late blight may poorly resist cladosporium.
In the list of high-yielding disease-resistant tomato varieties, you can see:
|Varieties||Features of the|
|Bohemia, Little Prince, Orange Giant, Ray, Cherry, Ranetochka, Agatha, Opera, Charisma, Spartacus, Yesenia, Matryoshka, Alla, Virtuoso, Maria, Antoshka||rarely get sick with late blight|
|Adonis, Aurelius, Alex, Lady, Aramis, Diamond, Associate Professor, Intuition, Caruso, Caliber, Kostroma, Swallow, Monica, Gardener, Pilgrim, Samara, Merchant, Swift, Yaroslavna||strong immunity to mosaic damage|
|Buffalo, Atlético, Vitodora, Grenada, Intuition, Porthos, Martha, Kirzhach, Kunero, Fountain, Tango, Jamaica, Caliber||not prone to fusarium wilt|
|Lyana, Big Mommy, Siberian Troika||practically do not get sick with alternaria|
|Bolshevik, Lianu, Benito, Martha, Rotor, Embellishment, Pharaoh, Toch||strong immunity against apical rot|
|Gold bead, Bohemia, Charisma, Vologda, Spartacus||insensitive to brown spot|
|Giant, Charm, Apollo, Academician Sakharov, Exhibitionist, Big girl, Far Eastern, Orange giant||strong immunity to many infections|
The morbidity of tomato seedlings when they are grown in open areas of a vegetable garden or in a greenhouse inevitably leads to a decrease in yield. When the first signs that speak of the unhealthy of the vegetable crop are found, it is necessary to urgently diagnose the disease and take emergency measures to save the plantings, suitable for this case.
However, it is better to try to prevent infection than to deal with its consequences. This will be facilitated by compliance with the rules of agricultural technology.
Top rot prevention
Preventive measures apply to any disease, and tomato top rot is no exception. Prevention is much better than medication. The complex of preventive measures is quite extensive, and it begins with the preparation of seed material for sowing in the ground, and ends with the harvesting of tomatoes.
But before starting to process the seeds in appropriate ways, we advise you to acquire new varieties that are resistant to diseases and pests, including drought and excess moisture. By purchasing a variety, the fruit of which ripens early and is large in size, having the maximum vigor of growth, you risk the most, because such a plant requires more nutrients, and the surface of the fruit itself is larger and the likelihood that even a small crack will form on it - much higher.
Now about the disinfection of seed material: usually tomato seeds are pickled in a solution of "potassium permanganate" or iron vitriol.
It is better to cook potassium permanganate stronger - it is advisable to make a 2.5-3% solution of this "drug", then place the seeds there in a gauze bag and keep them in solution for thirty minutes. After this time, the tomato seeds must be rinsed in running water for a couple of minutes and dried.
If your choice fell on the composition of ferrous sulfate, then it must be diluted in the following proportion: first, dilute the gram of the drug in a liter of water, then place the seeds in a gauze bag in this composition for a day, and then, without washing the seed material with water, bring it to a free-flowing state (after drying).
Prevention associated with preparing the ground
To protect against possible rot attacks, which will lead to the formation of top rot of tomato fruits, it is necessary to lime the earth well with chalk or dolomite flour, or even slaked lime - the latter, as you know, perfectly reduces the acidity of the soil. You need 50 g of chalk, 300 g of dolomite flour or 200 grams of lime per square meter.
Then, already when planting tomato seedlings in the ground, half a glass of wood ash or wood soot should be placed in each hole.
Top rot of tomatoes. One of the methods for preventing top rot is proper watering. © Nature Bring
Moisture in the prevention of tomato peak rot?
Prevention is not only the introduction of the necessary elements into the ground or seed dressing, but also such a simple measure as watering, however, timely and correct. The fact is that during a drought, the roots of a tomato plant cease to absorb calcium, its deficiency arises and hence all the troubles appear.
Gardeners noticed an interesting feature: tomato plants absorb calcium better at night, so irrigation is required in the evening so that the plant is properly saturated with calcium in the ground during the night. And so that moisture still remains in the soil in the morning hours, it is necessary after each watering to mulch the top layer with humus (a layer of a couple of centimeters).
Conclusion. So, if you have apical rot on your tomatoes, then in no case should you panic. We have given comprehensive answers to where it comes from, how to avoid its occurrence and how to deal with it with chemical and folk remedies. Now the top rot of tomatoes for you, or rather, for tomatoes growing in your area, will definitely not be scary.