Botanical characteristics and varieties of carrots

Botanical characteristics and varieties of carrots

Botanical characteristics of carrots and conditions for its cultivation

As well as potatoes and cabbage carrots are one of the most common everyday foods today. It is one of the main vegetable crops.

Carrots are considered a plant familiar to man since ancient times. The first information about carrots as a cultivated plant dates back to 2000-1000. BC e. In the literature, there are references to carrot seeds found in pile buildings for 2-3 millennia BC. e.

This speaks to the cultivation of carrots since prehistoric times. The homeland of modern cultural forms of carrots are: Central Asia, from where yellow and purple carrots came to us, and then through South-West Asia (Iraq, Syria, Turkey), in the 11th century, it came to the Mediterranean coast, to Spain, from where it later spread to west and east around the world.

In Russia, the Krivichi already knew carrots in the 6th-9th centuries, then there was a custom to bring it as a gift to the deceased and put it in a boat, which was then burned together with the deceased. They began to grow it in the XIV-XVI centuries, about which there is reliable evidence. Carrot pies were served on holidays.

The main thing about carrots is their dietary properties. Man has been eating carrots for at least one thousand years. Carrot dishes are recognized by culinary experts from all over the world, especially in dietary and baby food. Not only is it tasty, it is extremely easily absorbed by the body. Therefore, it is recommended for both adults and children, sick and healthy.

Developmental biology and the relationship of carrots to environmental conditions

Botanical characteristics of carrots

Carrots (Daucus carota L.) belong to the celery family. Cultivated carrot plants usually have a two-year development cycle. However, when grown under unusual conditions, some plants sometimes begin flowering in the first year of life, often without the formation of root crops.

The root system of carrots is pivotal, it grows quickly and develops very well. The roots extend to a depth of 1.5-2 meters, with the bulk of the roots located at a depth of about 60 cm. The root is fusiform, fleshy thickened in the upper part, whitish in wild forms, in cultivars of various shapes and colors. Carrot root crops are formed due to the deposition of reserve nutrients and thickening of the main taproot, from which a developed suction root system departs.

The mass of root crops, depending on the variety, is from 30 to 200 g or more. In shape, carrots are round, oval, conical, cylindrical, fusiform. The length of the root crops is from 3 to 30 cm. In the section of root crops, two very thickened layers can be seen: the outer layer is the bark covered with skin and the inner layer is the core (wood). The outer layer of table carrots has a delicate, tasty pulp. European carrot varieties have predominantly red-orange roots, while Asian varieties have yellow to purple and even black roots. The inner layer is less intensely colored and has a coarser texture.

As a result of long-term selection, forms with intensely colored wood, hardly distinguishable in color and taste from bark (of the Nantes type), were selected from table varieties. The core diameter of the best carrot varieties does not exceed 30-40% of the root crop thickness. The root vegetable of carrots has a very thin skin, which is easily permeable to water. In dry conditions without irrigation, carrot plants wilt very quickly and become susceptible to fungal diseases. With abundant precipitation after a drought, the wood at the root crops of carrots thickens, the bark cracks.

The leaves of the plant of the first year of life are collected in an outlet. They are almost triangular in outline, compound-pinnate, twice or four times dissected, on long petioles, pubescent or glabrous to varying degrees. Less often, the lower part of the leaf blade is also pubescent. The leaves of a plant in the second year of life on short petioles, expanded at the stem. They are able to withstand drought.

Inflorescences are multi-rayed, compound umbrellas, rays of different lengths, during flowering the umbrellas are convex or flat, later compressed. The flowers are bisexual, sometimes staminate. Petals obovate, white, cream, pink, rarely purple. In marginal flowers, the outer petals are much larger than the inner ones.

Fruits are two-seed, more often oval or oblong, slightly compressed from the back, with two rows of sharp setae on the main ribs and subulate spines on the secondary ones. The diversity of seeds is one of the main reasons for the uneven germination and development of plants. The most valuable are the seeds collected from the central umbrellas. To facilitate sowing, they are cleared of thorns by threshing and sold as such.

The fruit shell contains a lot of oil, which quickly goes rancid (deteriorates), which is why the germination of the seed decreases within 1-2 years of storage. The oil also makes it difficult for water to penetrate the seeds, which delays their swelling and germination. At elevated temperatures, essential oils begin to evaporate, the seeds swell and germinate faster.

The timing of the emergence of seedlings depends both on the quality of the seeds, their preparation for sowing, the methods of sowing and the depth of their seeding, and on the temperature conditions. Carrot seedlings develop very slowly. The first true leaf is formed 10-15 days after germination. Thickening of root crops under favorable conditions begins only 40-60 days after sowing. The earliest varieties of carrots reach a thickness of 1-1.5 cm and can be used for food as a bunch product only 50-70 days after germination.

It should be noted that cultivated carrots are easily crossed with wild ones. The northern border of the distribution of wild carrots in Russia passes through Veliky Novgorod, Kazan.

Requirements for growing conditions for carrots

Attitude towards warmth. Carrot refers to cold-resistant plants. The minimum temperature for seed germination is +3 ... + 6 ° С, seedlings appear fastest at +18 ... + 30 ° С. At a temperature of + 8 ° C, the germination period lasts 25-41 days, and at + 25 ° C it is reduced to 6-11 days. Seedlings of carrots can withstand frosts down to -4 ...- 5 ° С, but die when the temperature drops to -6 ° С for a long time. Under winter sowing, well-hardened carrot shoots also tolerate stronger frosts. Leaves of vegetative plants freeze at -8 ° C, and root crops do not tolerate prolonged frosts below -3 ... -4 ° C. Root crops removed from the soil die at -0.7 ...- 0.8 ° C.

The optimum temperature for growth and development and for the formation of root crops ranges from +18 ... + 20 ° С, and for the accumulation of carotene +15 ... + 21 ° С. In carrots, the root crop grows until late autumn, when the temperature no longer exceeds +8 ... + 10 ° С. Under the influence of low positive temperatures, the color of the root crop becomes lighter.

At high temperatures, the roots become coarse and deformed, especially if it is accompanied by a decrease in soil moisture.

Attitude towards light. Carrots are demanding on light and react extremely negatively to shading. A high yield of root crops and carrot seeds can only be obtained with good lighting of the plants. With thickening of crops, especially in the first phases of development, the illumination of plants decreases, which in turn causes stretching of plants, ultimately slows down the flow of the crop, reduces its size and quality of products, significantly worsening its vitamin value.

The length of the day and the intensity of solar radiation affect the growth of carrots and the accumulation of nutrients in them. A long day helps to increase the average weight of root crops. The St. Petersburg White Nights, during which the cultivation of plants takes place practically at a continuous day, cause a more intensive increase in production.

The growth of leaves and root crops in carrots is more intense under the influence of orange-red rays.

Relation to moisture. Carrots are relatively drought-resistant. Plants have a powerful root system that extends to a depth of 2-2.5 m and a width of 1-1.5 m, which allows them to use moisture from the lower horizons and resist soil drought. The shape of the leaves, the presence of essential oils in them, as well as small villi protect the carrots from excessive moisture evaporation. It has the smallest need among root crops in the total amount of water for the formation of the crop.

However, during dry periods longer than 20 days, carrots need irrigation. It should be remembered that carrot seeds swell slowly due to their high content of various oils. Therefore, it is very demanding on a sufficient amount of moisture in the soil during seed germination and in the first phases of growth. Carrots respond positively to irrigation and, with timely watering, gives a significant increase in yield.

Carrots give high and stable yields with uniform moisture soil during the entire cultivation period. With moderate and constant soil moisture during the entire growing season, not only an increase in yield is observed, but also an improvement in product quality. The abrupt transition from dryness to soil moisture causes intensive growth of root crops from the inside, which leads to a decrease in their quality.

During the entire growing season, carrots do not tolerate even short-term waterlogging of the soil, since under these conditions the growth and development of plants slows down, root crops rot. The groundwater level when growing carrots should be no closer than 60-80 cm from the soil surface. An increase in the level above 60 cm causes a decrease in yield.

The need for soil nutrition. Carrots are demanding on soil conditions. For the normal development of root crops, it needs soils with a deep arable layer. It grows well on a fairly loose, sandy loam or light loamy fertile soil with a high humus content and a good air-gas regime. Heavy loamy and clayey soils are not suitable for growing carrots. They swim strongly, forming a soil crust that prevents seeds from germinating.

The emergence of seedlings is delayed, they are sparse, weak. Root crops grown on such soils branch strongly, become ugly, and during storage they are affected by white and gray rot. The thing is that long roots, increasing their diameter, compact the soil. The volume of soil capillaries decreases by 10-15%. Only loose soil can be compacted. That is why all root crops grow well on well-drained, cultivated peatlands and silty soils of river valleys with a permeable subsoil, as well as on light mineral soils.

On heavy clayey, acidic and structureless soils with a low humus content, they do not reach normal size and acquire an irregular shape. When grown on dense soil, lenticels develop on carrots, which, growing, give them an ugly appearance, the surface of the roots becomes uneven and rough, and the yield of marketable products decreases. On poorly cultivated soils with a small arable layer, as well as on soils abundantly fertilized with fresh straw manure, long carrot roots acquire an ugly shape and even branch.

Root branching is also observed when the main root is injured. Therefore, it is not recommended to dive and transplant carrots and root parsley. The roots also branch when the plants are sparsely standing, but when the feeding areas are optimal for the variety, the lateral branches are mutually oppressed by the roots of neighboring plants. Ugly roots often grow in poorly prepared soil. In this case, the roots often "stick out of the soil", resulting in green heads in carrots.

The soil must be neutral or slightly acidic (pH 5.5-7.0). On strongly acidic soils, the yield decreases sharply.

Carrots take one of the first places after cabbage for the removal of nutrients. At the same time, its seedlings do not tolerate an increased concentration of soil solution poorly. Nutrients are used by the plant unevenly during the growing season. The greatest amount of them is absorbed by carrots in the second half of cultivation.

Carrots consume little nitrogen. With its lack, the growth of leaves slows down, they turn yellow and die off. With excess nitrogen nutrition, which is observed in floodplain and peat-humus areas, rapid growth of leaves and slow formation of root crops occurs, sugar content decreases, their taste and marketability and keeping quality deteriorate during storage.

Phosphorus is especially needed for young plants. It also helps to increase the sugar content of root crops. With its lack, the leaves become reddish.

Potassium increases the tenderness of the tissues of root crops, promotes better filling of seeds. With its lack, the air supply regime is violated. Leaves turn speckled yellow. It is noticed that with a lack of potassium in the soil, the resistance of plants to diseases decreases. High yields of carrots are obtained with increased doses of potash fertilizers with the addition of boric and manganese micronutrients. At the same time, the plant's resistance to phoma disease increases.

Carrots should be grown with a moderate phosphorus-nitrogen and abundant potassium diet. It is sensitive to the concentration of the soil solution, which in the seedling phase should not be higher than 0.02%, for adult plants - 0.025%.

For normal growth, carrots need a small amount of iron, sulfur, manganese and other trace elements.

Growing carrots

Carrot varieties

In our country, 76 varieties and hybrids of carrots are recommended for cultivation in various regions, including 38 of them of foreign origin. Of greatest interest to amateur vegetable growers are domestic varieties and hybrids of medium ripening: Altair F1, Berlikum royal, Vitaminnaya 6, Volzhskaya 30, Gribovchanin F1, Emperor, Zabava F1, Callisto F1, Karlena, Queen of Autumn, Royal, Red giant, Leander, Losinoostrovskaya 13, Mars F1, Moscow winter A 515, Nantes 4, Nantes, NIIOH 336, Nuance, News F1, Autumn King, Rogneda, Typhoon, Topaz, Tushon, Fairy, Chance, Shantane 2461, Shantane Red Core, Jaguar F1 and so on Further; early ripening varieties: Artek, Blues, Color, Canning, Parisian carotel.

They are distinguished by a high content of carotene, increased resistance to diseases and pests, high productivity, good keeping quality of root crops during winter storage. In recent years, vegetable growers have received recognition for new varieties and hybrids of foreign selection: early maturing - Buror F1, Nantes 2 Tito, Nantes 3 Type Top F1, Napoli F1, Rex; mid-season - Bangor F1, Berski F1, Bramen F1, Boltex, Vita Longa, Kazan F1, Calgary F1, Canada F1, Magno F1, Monanta, Nandrine F1, Napa F1, Narbonne F1, Parmex F1, Samson, Flakki 2 Trophy, Forto, Chanson and late ripening - Vita Longa, Nevis F1, Nerac, Flacoro. They are characterized by high yields, the friendliness of the formation of root crops, their evenness, and high taste.

Site selection

Carrots, being a valuable predecessor for other vegetable crops, are themselves unpretentious to their predecessor. It is grown in the second or third year after the introduction of fresh manure. It is better to place it after legumes, early cabbage, early potatoes, cucumber, tomato, onion. In the absence of specific diseases, it can be sown again within two years. You can not do podzimny sowing in areas where water accumulates. The site should be with light, non-floating soils, free of weed seeds. For carrots, this is of particular importance, since they are a poor competitor to weeds.After all, its seedlings in field conditions, seedlings appear no earlier than 15-20 days after sowing.

Read the second part of the article. "Early spring and winter sowing of carrots" →

Valentina Perezhogina, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences

Table carrots: types, varieties, photos.

These varieties are grown for human consumption and are divided into early maturing (early), mid-season, late maturing (late).

Early (early ripe) carrots: varieties and photos.

The growing season for carrots does not exceed 100 days. Root vegetables are intended for consumption both raw and for heat treatment and are generally not intended for long-term storage. Some varieties of early carrots are presented below:

  • Parisian carrots (Carotel carrots), with dark orange rounded roots, with a diameter of 3 to 6 cm and weighing up to 60 g, reminiscent of radishes. The pulp of this early carrot is juicy, tender, with a sweet taste.

  • Dragon carrots - a variety of early carrots with purple fruits of an elongated conical shape, up to 25 cm long and up to 15-30 mm in diameter, with bright orange pulp.

  • Carrots "Amsterdam" - a variety of early carrots with a root crop resembling a cylinder, up to 15-17 cm long and 20-25 mm in diameter. The juicy pulp of a vegetable with a small core has a bright orange color.

  • Carrot "Fun" with cylindrical, slightly pointed roots, the length of which reaches 10-15 cm, and weighing up to 60-100 g. The pulp of early carrots is sweet and juicy, colored orange. This variety is suitable for long-term storage.

Mid-season carrot varieties: description and photo.

From the moment the foliage appears on the surface and until ripeness in carrots of this variety type, it takes up to 120 days. Root crops can withstand long-term storage and are used as food after cooking. The best mid-season carrot varieties:

  • Shantane carrots with dense red-orange flesh and pronounced yellow core. The carrot root crop has the shape of a truncated cone with a blunt end. Its length does not exceed 15 cm, and its weight is 200 g. The skin is smooth with small "eyes" lenticels.

  • Carrot "Vitamin" - a mid-season variety with cylindrical roots and a blunt tip, weighing up to 170 g and up to 13-15 cm long. Carrot skin and its pulp are colored orange. The core of a small size, rounded or star-shaped in color, almost does not differ from the pulp of the fruit. It is the sweetest carrot among many other varieties.

  • Carrot "Red giant" with orange fruits that resemble a long truncated cone in appearance. With a weight of about 130 g and a diameter of 5-6 cm, the length of carrots can reach 20-25 cm. In terms of beta-carotene content, this carrot variety is ahead of other varieties, regardless of the ripening period.

  • Carrot "Samson" - mid-season variety with cylindrical roots and a blunt tip. The pulp is juicy and sweet, colored orange. The length of this type of carrot does not exceed 20 cm, and the weight is 200 g.

Late varieties of carrots: description and photo.

The growing season of this type of carrot lasts up to 140 days. Late carrots have good taste and can be used both raw and cooked. Carrot fruits have a long shelf life, up to a new harvest. The best varieties of late carrots:

  • Carrot "Emperor" with large blunt-pointed cylindrical roots and dense orange flesh. The length of individual fruits can reach 30 cm, and the weight of these giants is 200 g.

  • Flaccoro carrots with bright orange conical fruits and a blunt nose. The length of individual specimens may exceed 35-39 cm, and the weight is 200 g.

  • Yellowstone carrots"- a late variety of carrots with large roots and yellow juicy pulp, which have a fusiform appearance. Their length ranges from 20 to 25 cm, and the weight of an average carrot reaches 200 grams. A very productive variety.

  • Carrot "Queen of Autumn" with cylindrical fruits, the length of which does not exceed 20-25 cm, and the weight is 150-180 g. The dense and juicy pulp of this type of carrot is painted in a bright red-orange color.

Bullfinch-early ripe potato variety, table purpose - Country house-dacha, garden and vegetable garden

Bullfinch - early maturing variety of table potatoes Included. appointments to the State Register for the North-West Region gardening for garden plots, home gardens and small farms... Plant of medium height, intermediate erect, up to semi-erect type. The leaf is large. No or very little waviness on the edge. Corolla is medium in size, red-violet. Marketable yield of 271-180 c / ha, at the level and 105 c / ha higher than the Druzhno standard. Pushkinets forms tubers. Productivity on the 45th day of full after germination (first digging) - 130 c / ha, at the standard level, on the 55th day (second digging) - 210 c / ha, 40 c / ha higher than the standard (Leningrad region) ... The maximum yield is 139 c / ha, 354 c / ha higher than the standard (Leningrad region). oval Tuber-rounded, eyes very small up to Peel. small smooth to medium, red. Pulp Mass. white marketable tuber 59-90 g. Starch content 15, 7-16, 0%, 0, 3-0, 6% higher than the standard. The taste is good and excellent. Marketability 65-85%, at the standard level. Keeping quality 95%. Resistant to the causative agent of cancer susceptible, potato to golden potato cyst nematode. According to the All-Russian Research Institute of phytopathology, it is moderately susceptible to the late blight pathogen to the isolate from the Moscow Region, the isolate is susceptible to the tops from the Sakhalin Region, and the isolates are moderately susceptible to tubers isolated in the Sakhalin and Moscow regions. varieties Value: high yield, early maturity, amicable early formation of products, high taste. Chem.

tubers were interested in visitors who read this Kholmogorsky:

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Carrot variety "Vitaminnaya 6": description and some tips for growing

Carrots are one of the most common vegetable crops cultivated by numerous summer residents on their backyards. In order for the cultivation to be successful, it is recommended to correctly approach the choice of the variety. It is worth carefully studying the description of the vegetable crop and listening to the feedback of those who have already planted this or that carrot in their country house. An excellent solution is Vitamin 6. The attractiveness of this variety lies in its high yield, excellent keeping quality and excellent taste of root crops.

Description of the variety

The Vitaminnaya 6 carrot variety was bred by the Scientific Research Institute of Vegetable Economy. The variety was obtained by crossing the varieties "Nantes", which was presented by foreign breeders, and "Amsterdam". Vitaminnaya 6 was bred back in 1969, and for several decades this vegetable crop has been successfully cultivated by many gardeners.

Carrots "Vitamin 6"

It is recommended to grow this vegetable crop in:

  • Lithuania
  • Belarus
  • Latvia
  • Kazakhstan
  • all regions of Russia, except for the North Caucasus.

You can also cultivate this variety in Ukraine.

This carrot variety is mid-season. As a rule, from the moment of sowing the seeds of this vegetable crop to the possibility of harvesting ripe root crops, an average of 100-110 days pass.

Among other features of the variety "Vitamin 6", it is worth noting not only early maturity, but also high yield.

Attention! According to reviews of many summer residents, from 1 sq. m. from 4 to 10.4 kg of ripe juicy carrots can be harvested.

The plant is distinguished by the presence of a semi-standing rosette of leaves. The crop has a rich green hue. During the growth period, the roots are almost completely in the ground. That is why the top of the fruit does not turn green.

From 1 sq.m. you can harvest up to 10 kg of carrots

Characteristics of root crops

However, many gardeners are more interested in the properties of root crops. The shape of vegetables is cylindrical. The end of the fruit is rounded and blunt. The average length of carrots is 15 cm.As for the mass of reddish-orange root crops, it varies from 65 to 200 g. In diameter, vegetables reach 5 cm.

Root crops of the Vitamin 6 variety have a round, small, star-shaped core. The flesh of vegetables is tender and sugary. It contains up to 11% fructose. When compared with other varieties, then in them this figure is usually only 5%.

Another feature of the Vitaminnaya 6 variety is the high content of beta-carotene in its composition. 100 g of pulp accounts for about 17-22 mg of this valuable substance. Again, when compared with other varieties, the amount of beta-carotene in them is only about 9 mg.

Carrot seeds on tape

Unique properties make it possible to call this variety of carrots universal. Fresh vegetables are delicious and juicy. Fruits do not lose their positive qualities after:

  1. Heat treatment.
  2. Conservation.
  3. Store in a freezer or under a lid.
  4. Lying in the basement.

Attention! Among other features of the Vitaminnaya 6 variety, it is worth noting its excellent keeping quality, adaptability to storage in winter, and resistance to cracking.

The main pros and cons of the variety

As for the negative qualities of this vegetable crop, it is worth noting here the not very good resistance of the variety to diseases inherent in this kind of plants.

However, if preventive measures are taken in a timely manner, then it is quite possible to protect carrots from rot. It is also easy to prevent carrot flies.

For this, a large number of ready-made chemicals and folk methods have been created.

According to the reviews of summer residents, the Vitamin 6 carrot variety is very unpretentious. The plant grows well even in unfavorable, harsh conditions. Root crops grow well in regions where other varieties are not viable.

Carrot weight "Vitamin 6" - up to 200 grams

Advice. Vitaminnaya 6 is suitable for those gardeners whose plots are located in regions with difficult climatic conditions, since this variety is resistant to premature stemming and flowering.

The cultivation of this vegetable crop is not difficult. The main thing is to choose the right site for this plant. The variety is suitable for sandy loam and light loamy soils. Sowing of seeds is carried out in the last days of April. The deepening is done by about 3 cm.About 18-20 cm is left between the planting material.

The first thinning is recommended about a couple of weeks after the emergence of all shoots. When the vegetables are about 1 cm in diameter, you will need to thin out a second time.

Vitaminnaya 6 carrots are an excellent variety that is known to many gardeners and has proven itself well.

Carrots "Vitamin 6" - video

Protection of cherries from diseases and pests

Cherry diseases

Sweet cherries are much less common and less affected by diseases than cherries. Of the diseases, the most familiar to gardeners are perforated spotting (clasternosporia), gray rot of stone fruits (moniliosis), cocomycosis, and bacterial burn. Outbreaks of fungal diseases are most often observed during cold rainy summers with abundant dew and temperatures in the range of + 15 ... + 16 ° С. In cold regions, the processing of gardens must be carried out without fail, according to recommendations for combating diseases.

One-time for treatments in early spring, you can use antifungal fungicides and solutions of other pesticides (Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate, Skor, Horus, Hom, Abiga-Peak). For coccomycosis and moniliosis, cherries can be treated with mycosan, according to official recommendations. During the growing season, it is necessary to switch to biological products phytosporin-M, trichodermin, pentofag and others. All drugs should be used strictly according to the recommendations. Otherwise, the effect of the application may not appear.

Young cherry tree. © bleedingdirt

Cherry pests

Of the pests, various types of cherry aphids, cherry fly, cherry slimy sawfly damage the cherry most of all. There are recommendations that Actellik-500 EC effectively acts on a cherry fly. It is used during the summer of flies, the berries at this time begin to ripen (turn pink). Do you need such a drug? The choice is yours.

Dalmatian chamomile infusion is effective. 200 g of dry material (buy at a pharmacy) pour 1 liter of water and leave for 12 hours. This is a stock solution. Add 5 L of water. Filtered. Sprayed. Spray at least 2 weeks before harvest. Dalmatian chamomile is poisonous. And its solution is far from harmless, although it is made from grass.

Since the pests of sweet cherry, in general, actively work in the warm period, which coincides with the formation of the crop, it is better to use tank mixtures of bioinsecticides (bitoxibacillin, lepidocid, nemabact and others) with biofungicides for control. The drugs are effective during the warm period. Safe for the health of adults and children, birds and animals. They can be used for almost the entire summer season. It is necessary to work with biological products according to the recommendations.

Dear Readers! Not all varieties of sweet cherries are listed in the article. Roughly recommended doses of fertilizers and drugs for diseases and pests. If you are interested in the article, write to us. Share what remedies you use, how effective they are. According to what scheme do you fertilize cherries and whether you fertilize them annually or according to your own (different) scheme. Readers will be happy to read and discuss your comments.

Botanical and morphological characteristics of cabbage

Cabbage (fig. 1). Plants are biennial. In the first year, the stem reaches a height of 15-50 cm and has a cylindrical, fusiform and expanded fusiform shape. In the widest part, its thickness is 3.5-6.0 cm. Plants form heads of cabbage of various shapes (Fig. 2) and density (Fig. 3). The leaves are lyre-shaped, indistinctly lyre-shaped and whole, on petioles 4-25 cm long or sessile, green, gray-green of various shades and purple, varying in the degree and nature of pigmentation. Leaf blades from small to very large (20-60 cm), from elliptical to reniform.

Fig. 1. Cabbage: 1 - plant of the first year of life 2 - head of cabbage 3 - leaf 4 - flower 5 - flower petal 6 - flowering branch 7 - pods

The surface of the plate is flat and concave or convex to varying degrees. The edges of the lamina are whole or unequally crenate to varying degrees and dentate incised, smooth or wavy to varying degrees. The petioles and the main vein are thick, the lateral veins reaching 4-7 cm in width in some forms are also clearly distinguished. Strong to weak wax coating, sometimes absent. In the second year of life, flowering plants are very powerful (up to 1.75 m), with an erect main stem, with numerous lateral branches, consisting of axes of the first, second, sometimes third orders, drooping to varying degrees. Inflorescence is a long raceme (up to 75 cm). The flowers are medium-sized and large (1.5-2.8 cm in diameter). The petals are yellow, light yellow, and in a number of Mediterranean forms, they are white, smooth or more or less corrugated. Pods are 6.0-14.5 cm (usually 8-12 cm) in length. The pods are cylindrical in shape, flattened-cylindrical and flat, smooth, slightly tuberous and tuberous.

Fig. 2. Shapes of a head of cabbage: 1 - round 2 - flat 3 - round-flat 4 - conical 5 - oval

Fig. 3. Density of cabbage heads: 1 - very loose 2 - loose 3 - medium density 4 - dense 5 - very dense

The peculiarity of cabbage in comparison with other biennial species is the presence of forms with the longest period of vernalization.The described species is characterized by late maturity of plants in the second year of life (in contrast to collard greens and kohlrabi) and greater frost resistance than kohlrabi. However, the most cold-resistant forms are inferior on this basis to kale and the most frost-resistant Savoy. Cabbage contains less than other types of dry, nitrogenous, minerals and ascorbic acid, but it has the ability to accumulate in the heads of cabbage a significant amount of sugars, mainly in the form of monoses.

Widely distributed and cultivated in Europe, America, Asia, Australia, Africa.

Kohlrabi. Plants are biennial, 30-110 cm in diameter. In the first year of life with a very short stem (10-25 cm), which expands to form a rounded, flat-round, oval or obovate (Fig. 4), pale green, green, pale purple, purple or dark purple stem fruit.

The root system is deeply penetrating (150-200 cm). Leaves are prostrate, lyre-lobed-incised, lyre-shaped and indistinctly lyre-shaped, grayish-green and violet-green. The blades are sharp or blunt. Plates from triangular and ovate to truncated-elliptical, usually flat, with an unequally-toothed edge, or double-dentate, or crenate-dentate, slightly wavy or wavy. Petioles are of medium length and long, from very thin (0.4 cm) to thick (over 1 cm wide). Very low to strong waxy coating on leaves and stems. Hairy pubescence is often observed in the first leaves along the edge. In the second year of life, flowering plants are undersized, with thin branches. Stem leaves are lanceolate and linear, sharp-toothed-incised. The flowers are of medium size, with yellow or, less commonly, cream and white petals. In violet-colored varieties, anthocyanin pigmentation appears on sepals, anthers, and a column. Pods are cylindrical or flattened-cylindrical, medium length (6.3-8.2 cm, rarely up to 9.8-11.4 cm), 0.27-0.38 cm wide, usually strongly tuberous and tuberous. Plants are early maturing in terms of flowering and seed ripening.

Relatively salt-resistant. The frost resistance of kohlrabi is average, but it is quite resistant to damage by leaf-eating insects. Differs in the ability to accumulate a large amount of sucrose in the stalks.

Currently, kohlrabi is widely cultivated in Europe, especially in Central. Kohlrabi is grown in the Caucasus, Central Asia, China, Japan, India, Vietnam, Pakistan, Afghanistan, in the countries of North and South America.

Savoy cabbage (fig. 5). Plants are biennial. In the first year of life, they form a short or medium height stem, rarely tall, fusiform or cylindrical, densely leafy. The morphological feature of the species is the bubbly structure of thin, harsh leaves. Leaves are whole and indistinctly lyre-shaped, rarely lyre-shaped, sessile or with short and medium petioles (4-15 cm), green in different shades, only in single varieties with weak anthocyanin pigmentation, with a weak waxy bloom or without it, less often expressed in a moderate degree ... The leaf blades are somewhat smaller than those of cabbage (20-50 cm in length), in shape from broadly lanceolate, elliptical to reniform, flat or concave to varying degrees. The edges are coarsely toothed, not infrequently wrapped on the underside of the plate. Within the species, there are forms that form a head of cabbage, or leafy, with a weak curl of the apical leaves. Heads of cabbage are very diverse in shape: from oval and conical to flat. Often the heads of cabbage have a "rosy" structure, that is, the leaves of the head of cabbage do not completely cover each other and as a result, its core remains open. In the second year of life, the plants are undersized and medium-sized, with shorter inflorescences compared to cabbage. The flowers are light yellow, of medium size (1.5-2.0 cm in diameter). The pods are short and of medium length (4.5-10 cm, usually 6.57.8 cm), cylindrical or flattened-cylindrical (0.3-0.4 cm wide), with a lumpy or slightly lumpy surface, rarely smooth. In terms of flowering and ripening of seeds, they are similar to cabbage.

Fig. 5. Savoy cabbage

Plants in the first year of life differ more in early maturity (there are very late-maturing forms) and are more hardy than cabbage. Savoy cabbage, with approximately equal sugar content, contains dry matter,. ascorbic acid and especially crude protein and minerals are more than head. Heads of cabbage have a more yellowish color in comparison with head of cabbage, which depends on the presence in their leaves of a greater amount of yellow pigments (xanthophyll, flavones).

Distributed in France, Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands in small quantities grown in the CIS countries and in America in Asian and African countries, cultivation is very limited.

Cauliflower (fig. 6). Annual or winter plant. The stem is cylindrical, 15-70 cm in height, with horizontally located or straight or obliquely upwardly directed leaves, very often curved spiral. Some forms are branched in the vegetative phase. Leaves from whole sessile to lyre-pinnatipartite, with petioles reaching 5-40 cm in length, from light to blue-green and less often gray-gray with strong anthocyanin pigmentation. The plates are narrow, from truncated-oval, truncated-elliptical and ovate to lanceolate, 15-90 cm long. Light to very strong waxy coating. In the most primitive forms of cauliflower, the organ used is individual fleshy flowering shoots (in the budding phase), formed from the axils of the upper leaves of the rosette, in other forms - the "head", when the apical shoots, strongly branching, are closely clustered. The color of the head is from green in different tones, purple and yellowish to snow-white. The upper leaves are small, short-oval and broadly linear, with an even margin or lanceolate and elongated-triangular, dentate. Flower clusters are dense, from very short (3 cm) to long (over 15 cm). The flowers are predominantly small and medium-sized (1.2-2.0 cm), rarely large (up to 2.6 cm), with thin pedicels. The color of the petals is white, pale yellow and yellow, their surface is corrugated or blister-like wrinkled. The pods are short and of medium length (6.0-8.5 cm), mostly cylindrical, less often flattened-cylindrical, tuberous.

Fig. 6. Cauliflower: 1 - plant of the first year of life 2 - leaf 3 - head 4 - flower 5 - flowering branch

The biological feature of the species is a one-year development cycle and less frost resistance in comparison with biennial species, biochemical - the accumulation of less sugars by plants than biennial species, while glucose in the sum of sugars does not prevail, as is observed in biennial species. Cauliflower also has a high ascorbic acid content. Nitrogenous substances are mainly (up to 83%) represented by protein nitrogen, which is not observed in cabbage, savoy cabbage and kohlrabi.

Currently, it is widely cultivated throughout Europe, in North and South America, in Asian countries - China, Japan.

One of the subspecies of cauliflower is broccoli.

Cabbage (Fig. 7, a). Annual plants. The lower leaves are collected in a dense rosette 30-60 cm in diameter, whole, sessile, broadly ovate or oblong-obovate and oval in shape, 30-60 cm long. The edges of the leaves are crenate and serrated-incised, wavy or curly. Petioles are flat, very wide (3.0-6.0 cm), white. The leaf blade is wrinkled to varying degrees, light green, yellow-green, green and dark green, somewhat shiny or with a weak waxy coating, pubescent to varying degrees with bristly hairs. Plants form only a rosette of leaves or heads of cabbage, open on top or completely closed, in shape from round-flat and short-oval to very long cylindrical, high palatability. Flowers 1.2-1.8 cm in diameter, petals with a rounded-oval limb. Pods 3.4-7.7 cm long, 0.4-0.8 cm wide.

The plants are early ripening. Demanding on moisture. Low frost resistance. They are very strongly affected by keel, cabbage fly, and heads of cabbage - by mucous bacteriosis. Valuable for the content of ascorbic acid.

It is widely cultivated in China, Japan, the DPRK and some other South Asian countries, in the USA and, to a limited extent, in Australia and Europe, in Russia; it is cultivated in the Far East, the Far North and in the suburban areas of large cities in greenhouses.

Chinese cabbage (Fig. 7, b). Plants are annual, sometimes biennial. The latter form root crops. Unlike Peking cabbage, the plant is smaller, 20-40 cm in diameter. Leaves are glabrous on thin and very thick petioles, strongly convex on the underside, fleshy, white or greenish, without or with traces of a border, grayish-green to blue-green, often with a waxy coating. The plate is rounded and obovate, with almost integral margins, from smooth to bubble-like swollen. Kochanov does not form.

More frost-resistant than Peking cabbage plants and more disease-resistant, but the leaves are coarse.

It is widely cultivated in China, North Korea, less in Japan and some South Asian countries, in Russia - in the Far East.

Hybrids of this cabbage are becoming more widespread in America and Europe. Early maturity, cold resistance, unpretentiousness, the ability to harvest throughout the year (in greenhouses, Chinese cabbage provides the highest productivity of all green cabbage) contribute to the rapid advancement of this crop.

Fig. 7. Cabbage: a - Peking cabbage 6 - Chinese

Brussels sprouts (fig. 8). Refers to the type of sheet. Plants in the first year of life have cylindrical stems of 20-40 cm in height and more. In the axils of the leaves, very short twigs develop, on the tops of which small heads of cabbage are formed. The leaves are indistinctly lyre-shaped, on petioles 14-33 cm long, thin, rarely of medium thickness. The leaves are green in various shades, often with anthocyanin pigmentation on the petioles, very rarely the leaves are purple. The plates are rounded or short-oval, 20-40 cm long, 18-32 cm wide, strongly concave or flat, somewhat curved, with even more or less smooth edges, with wrinkled tissue. Flowering plants are highly branched. Flowers of medium size, petals with raised edges.

It is characterized by a high content of crude protein in heads of cabbage.

The largest quantities are cultivated in European countries.

Fig. 8. Brussels sprouts

Ornamental cabbage (fig. 9). Refers to a variety of leafy. Plants are biennial. In the first year it forms a stem with a height of 0.4-1.3 m, in the second - peduncles 1.5 m high. The leaves are large, flat or curly, green or purple of different shades, lyre-pinnate, rarely incised.

Ornamental cabbage plants contain dry matter - up to 21%, sugars - 6%, nitrogenous compounds - 4%, vitamin C - 150 mg% and carotene - 5 mg%, as well as a large set of valuable organic acids and vitamins. Compared to white cabbage, it has twice the fiber and protein.

Its plants can decorate a personal plot, they grow well from spring to autumn, especially in the second half of summer. Growing up, they become very beautiful. It is not without reason that some varieties are very popular in Japanese floriculture.

Varieties with curly leaves (Low red, Low green), in addition to decorative purposes, are used for the preparation of salads (especially at a young age), green cabbage soup, canning, as an addition to side dishes.

Fig. 9. Ornamental cabbage

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Vitamin carrots: botanical description and characteristics, pros and cons, cultivation and care, photos, reviews

Carrot Vitamin 6: reviews, photos, characteristics and description of the variety, yield which are presented in our article, is in great demand among most gardeners.

Further in the article you can find out it advantages and disadvantages, especially cultivationand also read Photo and reviews those gardeners who have already planted a variety of carrots Vitamin 6.

Which variety of carrots is better to plant in your region, depending on the purpose of cultivation (early for food, mid-season and late - for storage and for planting before winter) read on our website in the article: Review of the best varieties of carrots for outdoor cultivation.

EARLY POTATO, Botanical characteristics and biological characteristics of potatoes, buy potatoes in bulk - watch video

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Early potatoes are usually referred to as late ones, and vegetables are usually referred to as field crops.
Potatoes are a perennial tuberous plant with annually dying herbaceous stems; it is cultivated as an annual crop. Plants that have grown from form, tubers bush 50-80 cm high with three to six Root.

stems fibrous system, underdeveloped, the bulk of the roots is located in the topsoil. On a part of the underground stem of the plant, underground stolons-shoots develop, which, thickening, form tubers. size, shape and color of tubers are varied. The color of tubers is white, pink, red, reddish-violet, grayish-brown with various shades.

three from Eyes, five kidneys located on the Pri tuber. spirally ripening of tubers, the buds go into a dormant state, and at the end of it, with the onset of favorable conditions, they start to grow. The most powerful stems are produced by the central bud, sprouting Spare. the first buds germinate when the lesion or central is removed.

Potato tubers the absolute rest period lasts more than two months: in the early varieties there are fewer varieties, more in the later ones. When they are 1-3 ° C, the temperature does not germinate for 6-7 months. Tubers that have passed the dormant stage begin to germinate slowly already at a temperature of 3-5 ° C.

Potatoes are not only propagated by tubers, but also by cuttings, sprouts, and also seeds. The seed method is used for reproduction in breeding work.

When breeding, the initial tubers, plant growth is carried out due to the nutrient substances of the material tuber. The beginning of the formation of tubers usually coincides with the flowering of plants, in early maturing varieties even earlier. The growth of plants is suspended after the formation of berries with seeds, and the tubers are intensely yellowing before the leaves and stems grow.

Potatoes - a plant of a temperate climate.
The optimum temperature for the growth of a part of the aboveground plant and flowering is about 21 ° C, for tuber formation, the daytime temperature is about 18 ° C, and the nighttime temperature is 12-14 ° C. When the temperature rises to 26 -29 ° C, the formation and growth of tubers stops. And even small frosts (-1 -2 ° C) are detrimental to the root tops.

potato system of early maturing varieties potatoes are powerful, less than in late-ripening ones, but they are distinguished by a high absorption of oxygen and nutrients. Therefore, for the best early maturing varieties are light loamy high soil organic matter content and good potatoes.

aeration is picky about soil moisture, but consumes relatively moisture sparingly.The need of plants for water increases sharply during the period of intensive growth of aboveground formation and part of new tubers, reaching the phase at the maximum mass flowering, when the efficiency of irrigation is greatest.

Growing potatoes in shaded areas and excessive thickening of the plants leads to stretching, shrinking, tuber plants and a decrease in yield.

Preparing planting for tubers.
Success in obtaining an early harvest of significant in the potato degree depends on the quality of the planting receipt. The material of high-quality seed tubers for the next planting in spring must be taken care of even during the flowering period of the potato. At this time, the developed, healthy, plant-typical varieties should be well noted.

For planting, you can not use affected tubers, diseases and pests.
You should not take seeds with overgrown lenticels on the tubers (white tender peels on the growths, which, when dried, turn into brown specks). Tubers also with signs of suffocation cannot be used as seed tubers (part of the tuber pulp, softens it looks like a white or mushy pink mass with an alcoholic smell of freezing (soft tuber, when it is compressed, solar is released), burn liquid (dense tissue of brown color is formed on the tubers) ...

Seed tubers selected immediately after harvesting with a mass of 40 - 80 g (you can use smaller ones - from 25 to 40 g, but the harvest will be necessary) to plant trees below in the light. Tubers should be kept in bulk for 7-10 days in diffused light, so that they turn green. As a result, solanine is formed in them - a substance that increases disease resistance during the storage period. This technique allows you to reveal the hidden forms of tuber lesions by bacterial and fungal diseases. Greened tubers are stored separately from food as they cannot be eaten.

planting Before the tubers are germinated or "dried", they are treated with mineral fertilizers and growth substances with solutions. common The very method of preparing tubers for planting is Tubers. germination is germinated in order to get earlier and more friendly shoots, as well as to cull diseased tubers. Tubers are germinated in the light: in different ways, in a humid environment, in a combined way.

light for Germination.
Tubers are laid out in boxes or in two layers in the floor (40 kg per 1 m2) in a bright room with a temperature not higher than 12 ° С and not lower than 20 ° С. At a temperature of 12 - 16 ° C, germination takes 35-40 days, and 18 -20 ° C - 28 - 30 days. An increase in temperature to 21-25 ° C can lead to lignification of eyes and drying of tubers. Two weeks after the start of germination of tubers Part. the tubers are turned over, sometimes strung on a nylon wire or fishing line and hung by the window.

It is convenient to germinate potatoes in perforated plastic bags. Through polyethylene 10-15 cm holes are made in each bags with a diameter of 1 cm for air intake and carbon dioxide outlet, during the resulting respiration of tubers. The bags are filled with 2/3 tubers in volume, tied and hung on a bar in a warm, light room for 30-35 days. They are regularly examined, removing filamentous tubers with rotten sprouts. In case of excessively low humidity, you can sprinkle the tubers with water 2-3 times.

Normally sprouted tubers have short, thick and strong green shoots with numerous root tubercles. It should be borne in mind that the sprouts in which, appeared in the light, substances are formed that rapidly inhibit growth. Therefore, once in the soil, in such darkness, the sprouts do not begin to grow immediately. neutralization For the action of these substances, tubers for planting up to a week are shaded, covered with rugs, mats.

humid in germination environment.
With this method of seed germination of tubers, the harvest is obtained earlier than germination in the light, since in addition to the formation of shoots and roots. In a humid environment, the tubers germinate in total for 7-10 days, shifting them with moistened peat, humus, sawdust, chaff. The temperature should not be at 12 ° C. below an excess of water, the tubers rot, the sprouts become ill with a shortage - the sprouts develop very poorly.

Combined germination allows you to get the earliest harvest. First, the tubers are germinated in a warm, light room for 27-30 days until strong, thick sprouts are formed. Then they are placed in boxes or any convenient containers, containers for germination in a humid environment. Tubers are laid in several layers (up to the first). a five layer is placed on a prepared peat-distilled poured mixture with a layer of 10 - 12 cm, then each row is sprinkled with tubers with a moistened mixture of peat with pure humus or peat, a layer of 3 cm. It is better to moisten the peat-peat mixture not with water, but with a solution of mineral fertilizers (30 g of sulfate and 15 g of potassium superphosphate per 10 liters of water).

Until they appear on the tubers, it is better to keep their roots in a room with a temperature of 20-22 ° C. After a few days (with the appearance of the root temperature at the base of the shoots), the lobes should be reduced to 12-14 ° C. At this temperature, the boxes are kept for another 4-5 days, after which the tubers are ready for planting. The advantage of this is in the way that you can start planting without waiting for the soil at a depth of 10 cm to warm up to 7 -8 ° С.
From sprouted tubers or in some other way, seedlings appear usually 10-12 days after planting, and from not after - germinated 20-25 days. If it is not possible to germinate the tubers, then they can at least be "dried" in a warm and not necessarily bright room. Tubers are scattered in two, three layers and kept for 5 - 8 days before the formation of primordia.
sprouts by planting tubers are powdered with a wood glass (ash for 20 kg of tubers). Spraying a day 2 tubers before planting with an 8% urea solution is very effective. 80 g of urea is dissolved in 1 liter of water, this solution is sufficient for processing 20-25 kg of potatoes.

Potatoes are planted not only with whole tubersbut also cut. Early potatoes are best planted whole with tubers. Large tubers weighing 80 g more can be cut into two or three parts so that each of them has at least three or two sprouts. Cutting the tubers should be several days before planting, so that the cut is tested, this will protect them from decay and infection in the soil with fungal After. diseases of cutting each tuber, lowering the knife, disinfect it in a jar with a solution of potassium permanganate (20 g per 1 liter of Agrotechnics).

The most suitable for growing early potatoes plots on southern slopes with well-cultivated light or medium mechanical soil. Autumn. composition for digging is applied at 4-6 kg / m2 of bedding or compost manure. In the spring, before digging, the soil is scattered with complex mineral fertilizers (nitrophoska nitroammofosku or) at 50 - 60 g / m2. Planting is started as soon as the soil condition allows.

In horticultural plots, four use the main methods of planting potatoes.

Planting depth on heavy soils is 6-8 cm, on light soils - 8-10 cm. Simultaneously with planting tubers, fertilizer can be added to each hole. Local application of fertilization is the most efficient and economical. organo Prepare a mineral mixture of the following composition (kg): well-rotted compost or low-lying fine 100 - ammonium nitrate peat - 1.5 double superphosphate - 1.5 potassium chloride - 1.1. Instead of the specified fertilizers in the mixture, you can use nitrophoska or nitroammophoska in an amount of 3.5 to 5.5 kg (depending on the content of the nutritional elements). This amount is enough for a mixture per 100 m2 of area when applied to the hole each 200-300 g.

The feeding area of ​​one plant must be at least 0.15 m2, therefore potatoes are planted with row spacing of 60-70 cm, the distance between plants is more than 25 - 30 cm. in a row, large tubers are planted with a distance in less than a row of 30 cm. 12 cm distance of planting with tubers weighing 25-40 g the yield is lower, but they germinate faster than often and large ones are more resistant to adverse weather conditions and diseases.
Before the emergence of seedlings, loosening of small plantings is carried out with simultaneous weeding out of weeds. spring If it is prolonged, the emergence of seedlings is delayed and the soil is loosened 2-3 times. With the emergence of seedlings, until the rows are indicated, maintenance work is not carried out so as not to damage the young plants.

After the rows are marked, the soil is carefully hoe, especially if weeds have appeared. You should not hoe around the plants themselves, otherwise you can cut off those shoots that have not yet come to the surface.

With a potato plant height of 10 cm carry out the first hilling, at 20 - 25 cm - when, the second finally form the ridges. The ridges should be wide enough to prevent developing greening of the tubers. Finish the processing of row spacings by closing the time of plants in a row.

In case of insufficient fertilization, it is applied before planting and during planting, the plants are fed before the first hilling. For each bush, 1-3 g of ammonium nitrate or urea, 3 - 6 g of sulfate, 4 g of potassium superphosphate, 5-10 g of wood ash are consumed. From the beginning of the budding phase in dry hot weather, a calculation is made from watering 2 - 3 liters of water per bush. In a dry summer, it may take three, five waterings per Harvest.

season early potatoes before the onset of physiological maturity tubers with green tops. Selective harvesting of tubers is carried out by digging in the bushes and removing well-formed tubers.
Before the complete harvesting of the final tubers in case of damage to the tops or late blight by other diseases, it should be mowed and the area should be taken out. During harvesting, diseased and damaged tubers should be immediately separated, and healthy ones should be taken out to a drying area. Tubers intended for winter storage are dried longer (within 10-15 days), dark - in a preferably ventilated room. During this time, the peel will get stronger on the tubers and the wounds will heal. Then again the potatoes are sorted out and stored.

Chemical food, composition and medicinal properties.
Dry potato tubers up to 25% contain substances, mainly starch, as well as vitamins, proteins, mineral salts. The protein of the tubers is by its nature very close to the human protein, therefore it is absorbed by the body easily and completely. With raw cleaning of tubers, their nutritional value is sharply reduced, since the value as protein is contained mainly outside under the skin of the tuber. But the protein is preserved if the tubers are baked or boiled with the skin ("in Tubers").

uniforms are rich in fiber, pectin, they contain fats, organic acids, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, ascorbic and nicotinic acids, riboflavin and thiamine. The green tubers contain a poisonous alkaloid solanine.

Potatoes are the most important food product, and early potatoes are gourmet vegetables.
You can cook over 300 different dishes from potatoes
it is boiled, baked, stewed, fried, used in cooking soups, as a side dish for main courses.
use Potatoes as a filling for pies, dumplings
and potato starch is used to make jelly and mousse.
frozen potatoes, dried, kept fresh all year round.
No wonder the people call potatoes the second bread.

Potatoes are prized not only valuable as a food product, but also as a medicinal Starch. the potato plant has long been used in medical practice as a gentle anti-inflammatory and enveloping agent for gastrointestinal disorders. Fresh potato often juice is used for the treatment of ulcerative drug. disease inhibin, which is made from potatoes, is used for stomach ulcers, poisoning with poisons and inflammatory processes.

In the peel of tubers, flowers, leaves and potato stems, glycoalkaloids, substances similar in structure to their cardiac glycosides of foxglove and lily of the valley, were found. In moderate doses, these compounds cause a persistent, long-term decrease in blood pressure.

In folk medicine, potato fresh juice used for scurvy, constipation, scrofula and gastritis with high acidity, raw ulcer. stomach potatoes are applied to burns, hemorrhoids Inhalation. knots with potato steam - an effective remedy for colds in diseases of the upper respiratory tract. In cosmetic practice, potatoes are included in the composition of nutritious VARIETIES.

masks of POTATO.
The growing season from the emergence of technical to seedlings of maturity of tubers in early and mid-early varieties is 40 - 60 days.

EARLY early ripe. Medium bush, half Tubers. sprawling white, with a starch content of 12-16%. qualities Taste and lightness of tubers are good. Productivity 3-4 kg / m2.

The variety is early maturing. compact bush, medium height. Tubers are round-white, oval in color, with white pulp, weighing 160 - 100 g. Starch content in tubers is 12 - 17%. lightness period in tubers of winter storage is good. Productivity up to 3 kg / m2. resistant Variety to cancer.

EARLY early ripe. Medium bush, half Tubers. sprawling, rounded-oval, large, even, pink in color, with white flesh. Starch content in Yield 10-12%. tubers about 3.5 kg / m2. the lightness of the tubers is good. The variety is resistant to potato nematode, common scab, GRADE.

The variety is early maturing. upright bush. Tubers are oval, white in color, with white flesh. The starch content in tubers is 15 - 18%. Productivity up to 3.5 kg / m2. qualities Taste and lightness of tubers are good.

Medium early variety. Medium bush, tubers. sprawling oval, white, light yellow pulp, weighing 100-110 g. Content Yield 13 - 15%. starch up to 4 kg / m2. Good taste, good storage of ripened tubers. The variety is drought-resistant to potato nematode, highly resistant to mechanical damage to cancer.

Medium early variety. Tubers are oval and round, white in color, with white pulp, 130 to 90 g. Starch content 11 -15%. Taste qualities Productivity. good about 4 kg / m2 (up to 6 kg / m2). the lightness of the tubers is good. resistant Variety to cancer.

mid-early Variety. The bush is medium, compact. Tubers are oval-elongated, white in color, with white flesh. starch Content 12-16%. Productivity 3-4 kg / m2. the lightness of the tubers is good.

The variety is early maturing. wobbly bush. Round-oval tubers, white in color, with white pulp, weighing 100 - 150 g. Content Flavoring 13-15%. starch quality and keeping quality of tubers are good. Grade 3, 5 -3, 9 kg / m2. Productivity is resistant to cancer.

EFFECT medium early. The bush is medium, erect. oval Tubers, white in color, with white large, pulp. Starch content 16-18%. Taste and lightness - Productivity. good 3, 4-3, 7 kg / m2. Suitable for making fries, dry puree, chips. Resistant to waterlogged soil, viral to highly resistant diseases.

technology in Free.

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private house from the sun.

New technologies in construction for small businesses in inventions, in the village and innovations in construction, in the production of building materials for the village.

New technologies in heating, private construction of houses, know-how in construction and frame insulation of houses in the countryside and industrial premises in the agricultural sector.

The heating system is designed in such a way that the warm air flows are convection, during both heating and accumulation, the hot air flow moves from top to bottom, giving off heat and cooling, and in the absence of the sun - in the opposite direction giving off the accumulated heat.

Air solar collectors for solar heating are built into the facade of the southern veranda 28 m2 and the southern roof of the veranda 28 m2 and part of the rafter veranda 12 m2.

The total area of ​​solar integrated collectors in the veranda from the south is 68 m2, with a power of at least 200 watt / h, we can get 13.6 kW / h of thermal energy, which will be enough to heat 255 liters of water from 10 ° C to 55 ° C.

If the sun shines for at least 20 hours even in January, then we can store 272 kW / h of thermal energy, which will be enough for consumption at 7 kW / h per day for heating a house, figuratively for 38 days.





Watch the video: Planting and harvesting parisian mini carrots and chantenay carrots in tropical climate