Sweet cherry varieties Bryanskaya pink - a delicate berry in your garden!
Due to their excellent taste, cherries are very popular. But growing cherries on your site is not an easy task: firstly, this tree is thermophilic and does not tolerate the harsh climate, and secondly, the large size of the tree does not always fit into the size of the suburban area. The cherry variety is winter hardy enough to be grown in the Central Region, and is not too large in size. These qualities will satisfy the requirements of many gardeners.
Description of the variety
Bryansk pink was bred by A.I. Astakhov and M.V. Kanshina. Recommended for cultivation in the Central region. Despite the eloquent name, sometimes this cherry is referred to as yellow.
The tree is characterized by an average growth rate and a medium thickened crown of a wide pyramidal shape. The main branches are quite solid. Young light brown shoots have a very smooth and even surface. Not too large oval buds open with large green leaves with a sharply pointed tip and coarsely serrated edges.
The cherry tree blooms very elegantly
Cherry blossoms at a later date, in May, with medium-sized white flowers, collected in inflorescences of 3 flowers each. Fruiting is observed mainly on the bouquet branches.
Fruits on a thin stalk have an average size - the weight is about 4 g, sometimes up to 5.5 g. A distinctive feature of the berries is their resistance to cracking.
Cherry berries are very beautifully colored orange-pink
The pink skin with a speckled pattern covers the rather dense, juicy yellow flesh (colorless juice). The sweet taste is due to the high sugar content of 13.8%. Also, the fruits contain a lot of vitamin C - 14.2 mg per 100 g. A small egg-shaped and light brown stone does not separate well from the pulp.
Advantages and disadvantages
- restraint of growth;
- high rates of winter hardiness of the tree in general and flower buds in particular (while the flowers freeze under return spring frosts);
- resistance of the main branches to sunburn;
- low susceptibility to fungal diseases (coccomycosis, clasterosporiosis, moniliosis);
- good indicators of fruit transportability;
- berries practically do not crack.
- average yield (16–25 kg per tree);
- average early maturity (from the 5th year).
Features of planting sweet cherries Bryansk pink
Since Bryansk pink cannot self-pollinate, plant other varieties of cherries nearby (for example, Revna, Iput, Tyutchevka).
Cherries should be planted during the dormant period of the tree - in early spring or autumn. In autumn, cherries can only be planted in the southern regions with late frosts. In cold regions, early spring planting after thawing of the soil is preferable. The tree, planted in spring, has time to properly take root and get stronger by the next winter. You should not be late with planting - the survival rate of the seedling deteriorates and it may not give growth.
Store the planting material purchased at the wrong time in the digging hole until spring.
Sweet cherry is thermophilic and grows best in lighted places, protected from cold winds and free from cold air stagnation. Landing is recommended on the southern side of the site, preferably on a small hill (you can fill in an artificial mound). Make sure that the cherries are not in the shade of buildings or other trees (the distance to them should be at least 3.5–5 m).
For cherries, almost any strong soil with good drainage and a neutral (or slightly alkaline) reaction is suitable. Shallow sandy soils are not suitable. Groundwater should be no closer than 1.5 m from the surface.
If moisture stagnation can occur in the garden, be sure to arrange drainage
If the soil in the area is heavy and wet, lay drainage pipes.
About choosing a seedling
1-2-year-old seedlings are recommended as planting material.
When buying a cherry tree, be sure to check the availability of a vaccination site so as not to buy wild. It is best to buy a seedling from nurseries to get exactly the variety you need.
The root system should be well developed, with a large number of branching roots, without breakage.
The branches of the seedling should bend easily, and when the bark is pushed with a fingernail, a layer of green tissue should be visible. Check that the buds are green, but do not take a tree with open leaves.
First of all (long before planting) prepare a 1 m area2: eliminate all weeds, dig up the soil thoroughly. Apply 400-450 g / m2 as needed2 lime fluff.
2–3 weeks before the intended planting (and optimally - in the fall), dig a hole 70–80 cm wide and 50–60 cm deep. The size of the pit can be made larger, if you are not lazy, - this will only benefit the root system of the tree. Make the walls of the pit as even as possible, and loosen the bottom with a pitchfork or a shovel. In the middle of the bottom, bury a planting stake with a diameter of 5–6 cm. Its height should correspond to the estimated height of the tree trunk (usually a stake with a height of 1.2–1.5 m is sufficient). For tall trees, 2 stakes with a crossbar are required.
Mix the layer of fertile soil removed from above with 2–2.5 buckets of humus or compost, complex fertilizer and bone meal (60–65 g). Pour the mixture into the pit.
- Re-inspect the seedling (especially if it was stored in a hole). Remove dried and broken roots. If the tree is dry, immerse it along with the branches in water for 20-30 hours.
- Place the seedling in the hole at the top of the soil mound and spread the roots. The root collar of the tree should remain 5–6 cm above the ground.
- While holding the seedling upright, cover the roots with soil so that all the gaps between the roots are filled.
- Compact the ground with your foot, placing the shoe toe to the trunk.
- Tie the tree trunk to the stake with a soft rope (if its top is higher than the lower branch, shorten the stake).
- Make an earthen roller around the tree in a radius of 35-40 cm. Pour 2-3 buckets of water into the resulting hole.
- Cover the trunk circle with mulch (peat or sawdust).
Planting cherries on video
In the first year after planting, the seedling should be watered every 12-14 days with 1-2 buckets of water. In the future, it is recommended to carry out at least 1 watering per month during the growing season. The watering rate for 1 young (up to 5-6 years old) tree is 2-3 buckets of water, for an adult - 5-6 buckets. The amount of water and the number of irrigations must be adjusted depending on the weather: in a drought, watering can be increased, and in wet weather, it can be reduced (cherries do not like waterlogging).
For even distribution in the soil, water can be fed into an annular groove, shallow concentric grooves or holes arranged in a circle
For irrigation, you can use sprinkling, drip irrigation, water supply to shallow furrows or holes.
The soil under the cherries in the first 3-4 years after planting must be systematically loosened (to improve aeration of the roots) and free from weeds. After each watering, break up the soil crust and mulch the soil surface with humus or sawdust.
When the tree matures, you can use artificial turfing (leaving a clean soil surface around the trunk within a radius of 0.5 m), or plant vegetables or honey plants under the tree.
In the first 2 years, the seedling is fed with fertilizers placed in the planting pit. To improve nutrition, you can mulch the tree with rotted manure or compost (layer thickness 5–8 cm).
In the 3rd year in early spring, fertilizers are required: urea (0.1-0.12 kg) and organic matter (2-3 buckets). It is advisable to dig in fertilizers to a depth of 10–12 cm, and then irrigate.
Urea is one of the most popular and frequently used mineral fertilizers.
From the 4th year, the fertilizer rates are: urea 0.2–0.25 kg, superphosphate 0.35–0.4 kg, potassium salts 0.1–0.15 kg, organics 4–6 buckets. All these substances can be applied for spring or autumn digging of the soil (nitrogen fertilizers - only in spring!).
In addition to basic fertilizers, the tree may need additional feeding. In the summer, these are solutions of infusions of mullein, bird droppings or nettles. You can use water passed through the manure.
Foliar top dressing (spraying) with mineral fertilizers, especially nitrogen fertilizers (25–30 g of urea per 10 l of water) is very useful. Such treatments are usually carried out in June.
Cherry trees can be formed in different ways, depending on the wishes of the gardener and the space available on the site. The most common forms are pyramidal, standard, bush, fan. A fan-shaped cherry tree can be placed near walls and fences, it is easier to care for it, including easier to protect from frost and pests.
Formative pruning begins in the second year after planting in the spring, before bud break. The 2 strongest branches located on the left and right sides of the trunk are chosen as the main skeletal branches. They are tied to slats located at an angle of 35 about.
In the first two years, the skeleton of a tree is laid
The following year, the selected branches are shortened to stimulate the emergence of new shoots. Suitable shoots are tied to the guide rails, the rest are removed.
In the third year, they continue to select correctly growing shoots and form a fan. From the 4th year, the formation is over, it is only required to timely remove incorrectly growing shoots
For 3 years, all growths are shortened so that new, correctly growing shoots appear, which are tied to the guides. By the 4th year of pruning, the wall space is usually filled and all growths directed towards the wall and outward need to be removed. This is where the formation ends, in subsequent years it is only necessary to maintain the shape of the crown.
On the finished "fan" you need to shorten the lateral shoots in the summer, and then again in September to stimulate the laying of fruit buds
Caring for the formed crown is reduced to the timely shortening of lateral shoots and growth, which allows you to stimulate the laying of fruit buds.
Cherry formation on video
In addition to shaping, the tree requires regular thinning (removal of thickening and improperly growing branches) and sanitary pruning (elimination of diseased and dried branches). When pruning on a ring, hemp must not be left, and the cuts must be immediately covered with garden pitch.
Sweet cherries can form root shoots, which must be rigorously removed. The cuts on the roots must be processed in the same way as others, and then covered with earth.
Preparing the tree for winter
To facilitate the overwintering of the tree, water-charging irrigation is needed in November, which helps to increase the heat capacity of the soil.
The fallen snow needs to close the trunk circle (the snow needs to be trampled down). If the winter is snowless, it is recommended to freeze ice on the ground of the trunk circle. To protect the root system, you can simply mulch the soil around the tree with sawdust or peat (25–30 cm thick layer).
The trunk of a tree can be protected from mice and hares by tying it with spruce branches, metal mesh or fiberglass.
Cherry pests and diseases and the fight against them
Sweet cherry Bryansk pink is practically not susceptible to such diseases as coccomycosis, clotterosporia and moniliosis. But the defeat of bacterial cancer and milky sheen should be feared. Of the harmful insects, leaf aphids, cherry flies and scale insects are considered the most dangerous for cherries.
Table: Diseases of cherries and protection against them
|Name of the disease||Signs of defeat||Treatment methods|
|Root bacterial cancer||The roots and root collar are covered with growths, the growth of the tree slows down. When seedlings are damaged, they usually die.|
|Milky shine||Affected leaves turn grayish-white, as if covered with a bloom. The wood becomes brownish and dries out.|
Diseases of cherries in the photo
Table: Cherry pests and control
|Name of the pest||Signs of defeat||Control methods|
|Cherry fly||The fly larva takes root in the berry, partly eating away the flesh. The uneaten part of the pulp rots due to the secretions of the larva.|
|Leaf aphid||Shoots and leaves are covered with a layer of green or black-brown insects that suck the sap. Massive damage causes the plant to dry out.|
|California scaled||Brown-red bumps appear on the trunk and branches - pest shields. If you press hard on them with your fingernail or a sliver, a brown liquid is released. With a massive defeat, the branches of the tree begin to dry out.|
Cherry pests in the photo
Collection, storage and use of the crop
Bryansk pink ripens at a later date - in mid-July. Since this variety is not prone to cracking the fruits, you can leave them on the tree until fully ripe. It is imperative to remove the berries with a stalk to avoid rotting. The cherry crop is stored for a very short time - no more than 7-10 days in the refrigerator, so you need to eat it as soon as possible.
Pink cherries make jam not only tasty, but also very beautiful
If you can't eat all the fresh berries, you can prepare delicious compotes for the winter or cook jam (usually berries are boiled together with seeds).
Bryanskaya pink is an unpretentious and stable variety of sweet cherry, which has perfectly proven itself among gardeners of the Central region. Of course, it cannot do without drawbacks (for example, the yields are not too high), but this tree has immeasurably more advantages.
This variety was bred by breeders of the All-Russian Research Institute in Bryansk. The authors are M.V. Kanshina and A.I. Astakhov.
The tree is of medium size (4–5 m). The crown is broad-pyramidal, strongly leafy. The leaves are large enough, somewhat elongated, with a rounded base and a pointed tip, dark green in color. The kidneys are large.Flowers are white, collected in inflorescences 3-4 pieces.
Cherry tree Iput grows up to 5 m
Petioles are large - up to 9 g. In shape, the fruits are heart-shaped with a blunt bottom. When ripe, they are dark red, close to black. The skin is glossy. The pulp is of medium density, juicy, sweet on the palate.
Iput when ripe becomes almost black in color
Table: characteristics of an early variety
|High yield||First harvest for 4-5 years|
|Early maturation||The bone is difficult to separate from the pulp|
|The variety is resistant to fungal diseases||When waterlogged, the berries crack|
|Flower buds are winter-hardy|
Video: cherries in the Moscow region
Proper planting of cherries is a sure guarantee of bountiful harvests. It is advisable to purchase seedlings in autumn or spring in proven nurseries located in the same climatic zone as the site where further tree cultivation is planned.
When buying, you need to carefully examine the roots of the seedling. The root system should be strong, branched, and the cut should have a light cream color.
It is not recommended to leave leaves on the branches and dry the roots - a young tree will not take root well and quickly lose moisture.
Site selection and preparation
Sweet cherry Fatezh prefers well-lit areas. It is imperative to take this into account and choose a place so that the young tree is protected from cold winds blowing from the north. The best option is the southern and southwestern sides of the site. The variety grows well in high places, but not in hills.
You can raise the soil level at the planting site yourself by sprinkling a layer of earth by 0.5 m.
Favorable soils for cherries are sandy loam and medium loamy. The land must be fertile, have moisture permeability and moisture capacity. Sweet cherry grows poorly on deep sandy, peaty and clay soils.
It is not recommended to choose places for seedlings with groundwater close to the surface of the earth - the tree will die from stagnant moisture.
The soil for planting a seedling is prepared in the fall. Pre-planted plowing of the entire area where fruit trees will grow is recommended.
At the chosen place, holes are dug with a depth of about 0.5-0.6 m and a width of 0.8 m. The distance between the trees is at least 3 m.
The bottom of the pit should be loosened and 2 buckets of humus should be added, which should be mixed with the top fertile soil layer. In this form, the hole is left to winter.
Fertilizers are added to the pit before planting:
- 300-400 g superphosphate
- 100-120 g sodium sulfate
- 1 kg of ash.
Fertilizers are mixed, and then the resulting mixture is spread on the bottom of the planting pit.
If clay soil prevails on the site, then two buckets of sand must be added to the bottom of the hole, and two buckets of clay will be needed for sandy soils. Above is a potting mix.
Step by step description
If the roots of the seedling are dry before planting, they must be cut and placed in water for 6-10 hours.
- At the bottom of the planting pit, a stake is strengthened to support the seedling.
- In the center of the pit, a mound of earth is made, on which a seedling is installed.
- A young tree is attached to a support peg.
- Earth is gradually poured into the hole, carefully tamping it. The root collar of the sweet cherry should be 3–5 cm above the ground.
- Around the hole, a roller is made of earth and the tree is watered abundantly.
- After absorbing moisture, the soil is mulched with peat, fallen leaves or humus.
Video: choosing and planting seedlings of stone fruit crops
In addition to timely watering and pruning, cherries need to remove weeds and loosen the tree trunk circle.
Cherry Fatezh is watered 3 times a season in abundant portions. A young tree needs about 30–40 liters of water at a time, an adult - 60 liters of water.
Before each watering, the trunk circle is loosened, fertilizers are applied if necessary.
The growth of the shoots of the Fatezh sweet cherry is quite intense, so it has to be restrained. Pruning the branches annually will help maintain a beautiful cherry crown shape. This procedure is carried out in the spring before the kidneys swell.
The formation of the crown begins with pruning young shoots during their growth (before the beginning of fruiting). Annual branches are made shorter by 5th part. After the age of five, the tree branches little, so annual pruning is no longer required. You just need to make sure that there are no branches that are unsuccessfully located or growing inside the crown, new forks.
Sanitary pruning involves the removal of diseased, broken and dry branches; it is carried out in the fall.
All cuts must be treated with garden varnish, applying it in a thin layer.
Cherry Fatezh grows and develops very quickly, therefore, it needs nutrients at every stage of growth. All fertilizers are applied to the near-trunk circle, but not under the trunk itself, since the near-trunk roots do not absorb nutrients.
Sweet cherries do not require frequent fertilization. Otherwise, growths appear on the tree, which do not ripen and freeze in winter.
Table: annual scheme for feeding cherries
Root top dressing
For 10 liters of water: 1 tbsp. spoon of carbamide, potassium sulfate, mineral complex "Agricola for flowering plants."
For 10 liters of water: 2 tbsp. spoons "Agricola for berry crops, 2 glasses of organic fertilizer for berry crops" Effekton-Ya ".
200 g superphosphate, 100 g Agricola for berry crops, 100 g potassium sulfate.
Spread under each tree, then watered.
The appearance of flower buds
10 g of plant growth regulator "Bud" per 1 liter of water.
1-3 liters per tree (2 times with an interval of 5 days).
2-3 capsules of the plant growth stimulator "Energen" for 10 liters of water.
10 liters per 100 sq. m (2 times with an interval of 6 days).
The soil under the cherries is not fertilized with manure. It provokes freezing of the bush in winter and reduces the number of fruiting buds.
Photo gallery: popular fertilizers for cherries"Effecton-Ya" is an environmentally friendly fertilizer, which is obtained by the method of active composting of peat with the addition of various mineral additives to it. The drug "Energen" is a natural stimulator of plant growth and development The drug "Bud" enhances fruit formation, increases the number of ovaries and reduces the number of barren flowers Agricola for flowering plants increases the number of buds, promotes intense flowering "Agricola for berry crops" - complex care of vegetables and berry crops from spring to autumn
Sweet cherry varieties Bryanskaya rozovaya bear fruit well only under favorable soil and climatic conditions. This light-loving culture prefers to grow on moisture and air permeable soil, clay or sandy soils are not suitable for it. In addition, Bryansk pink should not be planted in lowlands where cold air stagnates. It is preferable to choose loamy or sandy loam soils for the tree in the southern part of the garden, where the bush will be closed from cold winds by plantations, country buildings or a fence. Waterlogging has a depressing effect on cherries, therefore, if the groundwater is near, ditches 60 cm deep should be dug to drain the water. Acidic soils must be limed by scattering lime under the crown of the tree when digging.
The self-sterile variety Bryanskaya pink will bear fruit only when a number of other cherry varieties with the same flowering period are grown: Iput, Revna, Ovstuzhenka.
It is recommended to plant cherries in spring. In cold climates, when planting seedlings with an open root system in autumn, early frosts can destroy immature plants. In the southern regions, you can plant cherries in the fall, but so that before the onset of cold weather the young tree has time to take root. Plants sold in containers can be planted at any time of the year, they take root well.
You should buy seedlings in nurseries, give preference to plants one to two years old. At the same time, you must purchase at least two pollinating trees. Saplings must be grafted, then they will begin to bear fruit earlier and will be more productive. The inoculation site is located on the trunk, 5–15 cm from the root collar: there the trunk is slightly curved, growing slightly sideways. If there is no vaccination, it is possible that the tree was grown from a seed and will not have varietal qualities.
In a seedling with an open root system, the roots are checked: they should be branched, with light ends. Dry and black, with outgrowths indicate plant disease. The tree should have an even stem, without damage or peeling of the bark, evenly colored foliage without spots, flexible branches. They can be shortened immediately, but the roots should not be touched - with a branched root system, the tree will take root faster.
The cherry seedling must have well-developed roots.
Plants with a closed root system must be taken out of the packaging and the earthen lump must be examined: it must be entwined with roots and not crumble. Saplings purchased in the fall are added dropwise until spring. In an oblong hole, one of the walls is made at an angle, seedlings are laid on it, the roots and a third of the trunk are covered with earth, abundantly watered and insulated with straw. To protect against rodents, the seedling is covered with spruce branches. In severe frosts, dug-in plants are additionally covered with snow.
The pit for the ditch is made 50 cm deep, and the length and width depend on the number of trees to be dug in.
For cherries, a plot on the south side of the garden is suitable, quite spacious to plant pollinating plants nearby. Other garden trees should not shade the seedling. For spring planting, the place is prepared in autumn, for autumn planting - in August. Large holes are dug (80 cm deep, 1 m wide, the distance between the holes is 4 m), about 5 m from the planting holes, several more holes are prepared for pollinating seedlings.
Earth (2 buckets) mixed with manure (1 bucket) is poured into the pits, and the soil is left to settle. It is advisable to lay drainage at the bottom of the pit, because cherries do not like a too humid environment. Before planting, the roots of the plant should be immersed in the Kornevin solution for several hours. If a seedling with a closed root system, spill the soil in the container with water and let it stand for 5-10 minutes. The lump will be saturated with moisture and will not crumble when removed from the container. Such a tree is planted together with an earthen lump.
Before planting cherries, dig holes 80 cm deep
Step-by-step process of planting cherries
- Add superphosphate (100–120 g) or 3 buckets of compost and 1 liter of ash to the wells, mix with soil.
- Drive a peg 80 cm high into the hole on the side so that it is from the north-west in relation to the tree.
- In the center, form a slide 20–30 cm high. Place a seedling in the center of the site, straighten the roots. The container plant should be planted with a lump.
- Tie the seedling loosely with a figure eight to the peg (this will help the plant to form a straight trunk).
- Fill up the hole, compact the soil. The root collar should be above the soil level.
- Make a circular watering trench, add water (20 liters per plant) and let it soak.
- Cover the ground with a layer of mulch.
The trunk circle is mulched with straw, compost
When growing a variety, it is enough to follow the basic rules of care. They consist in timely feeding, tree cutting and insulation for the winter.
Watering and feeding schedule
Cherry Morel belongs to the drought-resistant species, so it needs to be watered infrequently, about 3 times a year. For the first time, watering is carried out during the flowering period, the second - during the formation of fruits. The last time the tree needs to be watered abundantly in the fall after leaf fall, in order to saturate the soil with moisture for the winter. If the summer is very hot, then the frequency of watering can be increased, but in general Morel tolerates the lack of moisture well.
As for fertilizing, Moreli's fertilizer requirements are standard:
- In the spring, the tree is fed with urea or ammonium nitrate with a nitrogen content, they do this immediately after flowering, and then after another 2 weeks.
- In summer, you can fertilize cherries with phosphorus and potassium, they will contribute to a good harvest and strengthen Moreli's health.
- In autumn, the plant is fertilized with organic matter - humus or compost. Also in the fall, you can once again add a little potassium or superphosphate to the soil, which will strengthen the cold resistance of the plant.
You can feed Morel in the fall when digging the soil or during warming for the winter. Organic fertilizers can serve as mulch that protects the tree from freezing.
The plant is usually fertilized three times a year.
A formative haircut for Morel cherries is rarely required; as the plant thickens, old branches must be removed in the spring, gradually replacing them with new shoots.
A sanitary cut for the plant is carried out annually in the fall. The procedure includes the removal of all dry and diseased branches, it is also recommended to shorten the fruiting shoots by a third - this allows you to improve the yield.
Preparing for winter
Although Morel belongs to cold-resistant cherry varieties, it is recommended to insulate cherries with the onset of autumn. In preparation for winter, it is necessary to dig up the soil under the trunk of the plant by 8-15 cm and insulate the roots with mulch with a layer of about 10 cm.
In conclusion, I would like to say that the Bryansk pink cherry is a magnificent planting that really deserves attention from gardeners. Landing does not cause any difficulties, but the result can exceed all even the most daring expectations.
With all this, sweet cherries of the Bryanskaya rozovaya variety have a high level of immunity and stress resistance, they are not afraid of diseases and pests. But such a result can be achieved only due to the fact that the gardener will comply with all the requirements regarding planting and subsequent care for the Bryansk pink cherry variety.