Collections

Ramson, or bear onion: breeding methods and crop care

Ramson, or bear onion: breeding methods and crop care


In nature, wild garlic is found everywhere in the Northern Hemisphere. You can also grow it on personal plots. The plant is extremely unpretentious, caring for it is very simple. Greens can be cut much earlier than other herbs, it is a source of vitamins and minerals, which is especially valuable in mid-spring after winter beriberi. The culture is widely used both in cooking and in folk medicine. Leaves of wild garlic are wide and flat, very similar to the leaves of lily of the valley. And it tastes like a cross between onions and garlic.

Propagation of wild garlic by seeds

Wild garlic breeders are not yet particularly interested in it, although several varieties can still be found in stores. At the same time, due to deforestation, the plant in many regions is listed in the Red Book, because its natural habitat is irreversibly damaged. The names of the new varieties do not differ in their originality and creativity - Bear cub, Bear ear, Bear delicacy, Bear paw. At the same time, wild garlic is often called bear onion, and the meadows in which it grows are called bear meadows. This nickname is due to the fact that when the bears come out of hibernation, wild garlic is practically the only fresh greenery in the forest. Therefore, the animals are happy to feast on young shoots.

The choice of wild garlic seeds in specialized stores cannot be called very wide.

Video: what does wild garlic look like

You can also collect seeds yourself. Practice shows that about every tenth plant in the garden blooms every year. Inflorescence in the form of an almost regular ball consists of small white flowers. Round black seeds ripen in the second or third decade of June in triangular capsule fruits. They are cut off when they begin to turn yellow. Then the shell will harden and it will be very difficult to open it without damaging the planting material for the next season. The seeds are poured out of the box, dried and stored in a cool, dry, dark place with good ventilation in paper bags or linen bags before planting. The yield is 100–120 seeds per plant.

Collecting wild garlic seeds yourself, you can be sure of their freshness

When buying, be sure to pay attention to the expiration date. They should be harvested last summer, not earlier. Older ones do not differ in germination. You can also distinguish them in appearance - they are not black and round, but grayish and wrinkled.

In spring, young shoots of wild garlic appear practically from under the snow

The site chosen for planting seeds is dug in advance to a depth of 40-50 cm (the roots of the plants are quite powerful). Weeds and other plant debris are removed at the same time. Slaked lime, dolomite flour or eggshells crushed to a powder state (200-300 g per linear meter) are added to the acidic soil. You can also use wood ash - it is not only a good deoxidizer, but also saturates the soil with potassium and phosphorus. About two weeks before planting, the bed is loosened, applying organic fertilizer to increase soil fertility. Humus, rotted compost will do. But it is undesirable to use fresh manure and droppings. Such a powerful agent can burn the roots of emerging seedlings.

Humus is an effective remedy for increasing soil fertility

Most gardeners practice autumn planting of wild garlic seeds, doing it in the first decade of September. The latest possible date is mid-October. The specific time is chosen based on the climatic conditions in the region. The optimum temperature for them is about 20 ° C. If it exceeds 25-26 ° C or below 10 ° C within a month after planting, the gardener will, at best, wait for single shoots.

Before planting, the seeds must be stratified to simulate hibernation. They are mixed with sand or peat, moisten the substrate and send the container for 80–100 days to a refrigerator or other place with a constant temperature of 0–3 ° С. Another option is to wrap the seeds in a wet cloth or paper towel, place it in a glass jar, and roll up the lid. The substrate is moistened as necessary. Usually once a week is sufficient. Periodically they need to be shaken up, providing fresh air access.

Seed stratification imitates their overwintering in vivo

Video: Seed Stratification

To increase germination, seeds are soaked for 12-14 hours in a solution of any biostimulant. The same effect is given by both purchased preparations (Epin, Zircon, Emistim-M, Kornevin) and folk remedies (aloe juice, succinic acid, honey diluted with water).

Epin, like other biostimulants, helps to increase seed germination, and treatment has a positive effect on plant immunity

Seeds are sown in grooves 4–5 cm deep. Row spacing is about 20 cm. Sow them as evenly as possible, sprinkle them with humus mixed with fine sand on top. It is undesirable to use peat crumbs, it strongly acidifies the soil. Then the bed is tightened with plastic wrap.

The first shoots will appear in the spring, somewhere in April, but not next year, but after another season. That is, the whole process takes about one and a half years. As practice shows, no more than a third of the seeds germinate. Immediately after this, the shelter will need to be removed. When one real leaf is formed, the plants are planted, leaving 15–20 cm between them. This is done very carefully, removing them from the soil together with a lump of earth. The root system of young seedlings is very fragile. They are buried in the soil by a maximum of 5 cm. During the first two seasons in the open field, it is advisable not to disturb the plants by cutting off the leaves. It is better to give them the opportunity to form a developed root system. The plantings are looked after, regularly weeding the beds, very carefully loosening the soil and watering them.

Seedlings from wild garlic seeds have to wait long enough

If there is a shortage of planting material, the seeds are planted in small peat pots filled with universal soil for seedlings or a mixture of humus with fertile turf. These containers are buried in the ground.

Another way of planting wild garlic seeds is using the so-called nursery. A shallow box is dug into the ground in a greenhouse or outdoors. Seeds are sown according to the scheme 0.5 * 0.5 cm. Two years later, when the seedlings grow up and get stronger, they are planted, transferring to a permanent place. This avoids crowding in the garden.

Spring planting is also possible. The procedure is best planned in April. In this case, the bed is tightened with any air-permeable white covering material (agryl, lutrasil, spunbond). Seedlings appear in May-June next year.

Ramson reproduces quite successfully by self-sowing, therefore, after a while, the planting in the garden becomes very thick, the plants no longer have enough area to feed. To avoid this, every five years, large groups of bulbs are divided and planted, transferring to new places. In the same way, the plant can creep over the area, turning into a common weed. Therefore, it is recommended to surround the bed with slate sheets dug around the perimeter.

Video: growing wild garlic from seeds

Planting bulbs

Ramson is not picky, but in order for the plant to feel better and bring a good harvest, it is advisable, if possible, to recreate the natural conditions of its habitat. In nature, wild garlic grows in forests, along the banks of swamps, streams, springs. The plant is not tall (20-50 cm), so trees and shrubs shade it. Accordingly, it is best to plant it on a garden plot in the shade of a building, structure, fence, under a fruit tree, and so on. The culture does not like the bright sun - the leaves become smaller, lose their juiciness, dry out, the taste becomes less pronounced. For the gardener, this feature of the plant is an advantage - you can save space on the garden plot. In addition, a garden bed located in an open place will have to weed and water much more often.

For wild garlic in a garden plot, you can take a place that, due to shading, is not suitable for most other crops

The wild garlic does not have any special requirements for the quality of the soil. It successfully takes root in both light sandy and heavy clay soil. The only thing that the plant does not tolerate categorically is an acidic substrate. The best option for him is loose soil that allows air and water to pass through well. In nature, wild garlic grows almost in a swamp, but in captivity it does not like waterlogging. It is especially dangerous in early spring - the bulbs almost inevitably rot. Therefore, it is not recommended to plant wild garlic in the lowlands. There is melt water for the longest time. If there is no alternative, it is imperative to take care of drainage by adding crushed stone, expanded clay, pebbles to the soil. Or you have to fill in ridges about half a meter high.

Gardeners often resort to propagation of wild garlic with bulbs. This method allows you to quickly get a harvest from a new plant. But it is not devoid of certain drawbacks - only one new ovary is formed from each shoot. The optimal time for the procedure is August-September, when the vegetative period is over and the plant has fallen into hibernation. The aboveground part dries up and dies off by this time, so the specimens intended for division must be marked in advance, otherwise you simply will not find them in the garden. The gardener will receive the first harvest when using this method of propagation in the third year of the life of a new plant.

New wild garlic bulbs are formed annually

If there is a shortage of planting material, several bulbs can be planted in an open, sunny place, and not in the shade, as usual. Such plants develop faster and divide much more actively, but they need more careful care, especially with regard to watering and weeding.

The bulbs are planted according to the same scheme as the seedlings, leaving 15–20 cm between the plants. They are buried in the ground by a maximum of 5 cm, the smallest - by 2–3 cm. Dry feathers should be visible on the surface. Planting is moderately watered, the soil is mulched with freshly cut grass, dead leaves, wood chips, creating a layer 5–7 cm thick. It is undesirable to use fresh sawdust for this, especially conifers. The substrate is quickly acidified. Whether the procedure was successful can only be judged next fall after the transplant. If all goes well, a new replacement bulb should form. The aerial part of the plant practically does not develop during the summer; it pays the main attention to the roots.

The wild garlic bulbs are transplanted very carefully so as not to damage the plant roots

Practice shows that wild garlic bulbs gradually go underground. The largest and oldest are located at a depth of 20-25 cm. Dig them out very carefully so as not to damage the roots of neighboring plants. In children taken out of the ground, they are unwound by hand, if possible, cutting only where it does not work out at all. There is no point in planting bulbs without roots or with dry roots. They won't take root.

The wild garlic bulbs extracted from the ground must have roots, otherwise there is no point in replanting them

The garden bed is prepared in advance by digging deep into the soil. In addition to humus (3–5 l / m²), nitrogen (15–20 g / m²), potash (10–15 g / m²) and phosphorus (25–30 g / m²) fertilizers are also added. Suitable, for example, urea, simple superphosphate and potassium nitrate. There are also complex dressings containing these macronutrients - Azofosk, Nitrofosk, Diammofosk.

Azofoska is a complex fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium

It is not worth constantly growing wild garlic in the same place. Plants begin to ache and wither. It is recommended to transfer the culture to a new bed every 7–8 years. A clear signal that it's time is thinning stems, shrinking leaves and bulbs.

Culture care

The plant is extremely unpretentious, it needs only minimal maintenance. Particular attention should be paid to watering wild garlic. The soil in the bed should be constantly moderately moist, especially in the first month after transplanting to a permanent place. But you can't fill the plant either - the bulbs will rot and it will die.

The best option for wild garlic is frequent but moderate watering. The soil between them should dry out 4–5 cm deep. This can be easily determined by digging a small hole in the garden bed and trying to compress the soil into a ball. If it crumbles in your fingers, it's time to water. When the weather is cool, cloudy, it is enough once every 4–6 days; in the heat and with prolonged drought, the intervals between watering are halved.

Proper watering is the main component of competent care for wild garlic

Ideally, loosen the soil after each watering. If not, then at least 2-3 times a month. This improves the aeration of the soil and provides the roots with oxygen and nutrients. In such a soil, water does not stagnate.

After the aboveground part dies off, you can forget about watering. Until next spring, the plant will have enough natural rainfall.

Mulching a garden with wild garlic helps the gardener save time on weeding and reduce the number of waterings

Another important point is weeding. Mulching will help significantly save time on it (as well as retain moisture in the soil by increasing the intervals between watering). The optimum layer thickness is 3-4 cm. It will have to be renewed as necessary. The hardest damage to the plantings of wild garlic is wheatgrass and thistle. These weeds have strong roots that can pierce the bulbs through and through, destroying the plant.

Wheatgrass rhizomes can seriously damage the wild garlic bulbs, so weeding the beds is a must

The vegetative period for wild garlic is rather short, therefore, from fertilizers it is better to give preference to natural organic matter or purchased products based on vermicompost. The plants are fed with infusions and solutions every 3-4 weeks. The frequency of application of store fertilizers and the concentration of the solution are determined by the instructions given in the manufacturer's instructions.

Once every two years, in the spring, in order to increase the fertility of the soil, humus or rotted compost (2-3 l / m²) is embedded in the soil during the first loosening. You can also apply nitrogen-containing fertilizers (urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate) in dry form or in the form of a solution (8-10 g per 1 m² or 10 l of water). You should not overdo it with such dressings. An excess of nitrogen in the soil has a bad effect on the immunity of plants, the leaves darken, become coarser, and nitrates harmful to health accumulate in them. And at the end of the growing season, sifted wood ash is scattered over the garden every year (glass per 1 m²). It is a natural source of potassium and phosphorus. Dolomite flour or other substance with similar properties is added to acidic soil every 3-4 years.

Dolomite flour is a soil deoxidizer that has no side effects if the recommended dosage is observed

For feeding wild garlic, infusions are prepared from fresh cow dung, bird droppings, nettle greens, dandelion leaves. In principle, any other weeds growing on the site can be used. A deep container is filled with raw materials by about a third, top up with water, and tightly closed. Then it is left in the sun for 3-4 days until a characteristic odor appears. Before use, the finished fertilizer is filtered and diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 or 1:15, if manure was used as raw material.

Nettle infusion is an absolutely natural and completely free fertilizer

Wild garlic hibernates, as a rule, without additional shelter, even in regions with a temperate climate. But if the winter is expected to be very harsh and at the same time little snow, it is advisable to insure yourself by covering the bed with a layer of mulch (fallen leaves, needles, straw) 8-10 cm thick and tightening with several layers of burlap or other covering material that allows air to pass through. As soon as enough snow falls, it is thrown from above, building a snowdrift. It gradually settles, so during the winter you will have to renovate the structure several times.

Video: tips for growing wild garlic

Ramson at home

The dimensions of wild garlic do not differ, therefore it is quite possible to grow it at home, providing itself with fresh healthy greens all year round. The height of the plant is only 20-50 cm, the leaves are narrow, 3-5 cm wide, there are few of them in the outlet. The best time to disembark is early spring. Many people believe that greens in captivity turn out to be softer and juicier than in the garden.

With a not too high plant height, the root system of wild garlic is quite powerful, the bulbs are in the soil at a depth of about 20 cm. Therefore, the pot for her is chosen not too wide, but deep, resembling a bucket in shape. Preference is given to ceramic containers without glaze coating. Such material allows air to pass through better, preventing moisture from stagnating at the roots.

The pot for growing wild garlic must be deep enough

For the plant, a universal soil for indoor flowers is suitable, but it is better to mix the soil yourself. Humus, leafy sod land and coarse river sand should be taken in a ratio of 2: 2: 1. You cannot take turf from under coniferous trees. In nature, wild garlic never grows under them. To prevent the development of rot, for every 3 liters of the finished substrate, put a tablespoon of powdered chalk or activated carbon.

The garlic is undemanding to the quality of the soil, this also applies to those specimens that are grown at home

Both the pot and the soil must be sterilized before planting. It is enough to wash the container thoroughly and pour over boiling water, freeze the soil, steam it, fry it in the oven or spill it with a dark purple solution of potassium permanganate.

You can plant both seeds and wild garlic bulbs at home. For the first, pre-planting preparation is required. The procedure is no different from that described above for open ground. But at home, seedlings appear much faster, after about a month.

After planting, the seeds and bulbs are sprinkled with a layer of fine sand mixed with peat chips (layer thickness - 5–7 cm). The soil in the pot is moderately moistened by spraying with a spray bottle. The container is tightened with plastic wrap or covered with glass. The greenhouse is opened daily for ventilation for 8-10 minutes, preventing condensation from accumulating. The substrate is gently loosened, moistened as it dries. As soon as shoots appear, the pot is transferred to a place where it will be provided with light partial shade and protection from direct sunlight.

There is nothing difficult in growing wild garlic at home

For the summer, it is useful to take wild garlic to the balcony, open veranda, terrace. The plant reacts very positively to fresh air. Caring for her consists in regular watering and feeding. Any complex means for decorative foliage will do. You can alternate them with natural organic matter and fertilizing based on vermicompost.

The first harvest at home is obtained in two years if wild garlic seeds are planted. From bulbs - for the next season. Too zealous with cutting is not worth it, the plant may not recover from a sharp loss of most of the green mass. It is recommended to have several copies at once and cut them one by one.

Diseases and pests typical of the plant

The specific smell of wild garlic and the high concentration of essential oils in the leaves repel the vast majority of pests that feed on plant juices. Perhaps the only exception is the miner fly. Cultural immunity is also pretty good. Most often, various types of rot are manifested, in the development of which the gardener himself is often to blame, too often and / or watering the plant abundantly. Another possible fungal disease is leaf rust. It is most often transmitted from crops growing nearby.

The main danger for wild garlic is not the adult specimens of the miner fly, but its larvae. They penetrate the tissue of leaves and eat out tunnels in them, practically without leaving the surface. Outside, it looks like semicircular bulges with a diameter of about 1 mm and a length of 1.5–2 cm. Associated symptoms are discolored areas of tissue that gradually become thinner and die off, deformed withering leaves. This process is usually going on rather quickly.

For some reason, the miner fly is very partial to the yellow color, this feature is used in the manufacture of homemade traps

You can fight with adults by hanging sticky tape for catching flies or homemade traps next to the garden bed - cut plastic bottles filled with sugar syrup, diluted honey or jam, or pieces of cardboard, plywood, linoleum, greased with the same honey, petroleum jelly, long-drying glue ... The larvae are scared away by sprinkling the soil in the garden with a mixture of wood ash, tobacco chips and ground red pepper.

Miner fly larvae eat leaf tissue from the inside

When characteristic damage is found, insecticides are used - Aktaru, Konfidor-Maxi, Mospilan, Apache. The frequency of processing and the concentration of the solution are determined by the instructions. You need to spray both the plants themselves and the substrate.

Rust is caused by a fungus that is carried by the wind or carried by droplets of water. In the affected plant, the normal course of the process of photosynthesis and metabolism is disrupted, it suffers from a moisture deficit, the leaves gradually fall off. At the same time, depressed red spots of a rounded shape appear on the front side, the wrong side is tightened with a continuous layer of a fleecy bloom of a saffron shade. Gradually, it changes color to a rusty brown and thickens.

Leaf rust is a dangerous disease that disrupts the processes of photosynthesis and metabolism that are vital for the plant.

For prevention in early spring, the soil in the garden is sprayed with a 5% carbamide solution, and at the end of the growing season, it is treated with 2% copper sulfate. During the period of active growth, once every 2-3 weeks, wild garlic is sprayed with foam of green potash or laundry soap, a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate, diluted in water with soda ash or colloidal sulfur (15-20 g per 10 l). Effective folk remedies - diluted 1:10 kefir or milk whey with the addition of iodine (drop per liter). You can dilute ammonia or vinegar essence with water in the same proportion.

Fight disease with fungicides. It is advisable to choose drugs of biological origin (Ridomil-Gold, Alirin-B, Tiovit-Jet, Bayleton). More potent are Abiga-Peak, Topaz, HOM, Kuprozan. There are also means, the effectiveness of which has been tested by more than one generation of gardeners - Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate.

Bordeaux liquid is a common fungicide, the effectiveness of which has been tested by more than one generation of gardeners, you can do it yourself

Gray rot in the vast majority of cases is caused by waterlogging of the soil. A grayish dust appears on the leaves, then brownish or beige translucent spots, as if watery. Gradually, they turn gray and are tightened with a continuous layer of a fluffy coating of ashy color with small black blotches. The affected areas of tissue soften and die off.

Most often, the gardener himself is to blame for the development of gray rot of wild garlic, who is too zealous with watering.

For prevention, the plants are powdered with crushed chalk or sifted wood ash, the soil in the garden is sprinkled with colloidal sulfur. Water for irrigation is periodically replaced with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate.

If the disease is not noticed in time, the plant can only be dug up and burned to eliminate the source of the infection. At an early stage, all areas of the affected tissue are excised with a disinfected razor blade or scalpel. It is necessary to capture also 2-3 mm healthy in appearance. Most likely, the spores of the fungus have already spread there, just external symptoms have not yet appeared. Wounds are washed with 2% copper sulfate and sprinkled with activated carbon powder or cinnamon. At the next loosening, granules of Trichodermin, Glyokladin are introduced into the soil. Instead of water, for a month, wild garlic is watered with a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate or Fitosporin-M.

Potassium permanganate solution - an effective means for soil disinfection

Root rot is even more dangerous for the culture. It develops for a long time, not manifesting itself in any way on the aerial part of the plant. Then the bases of the stems soften, change color to black-brown, become slimy to the touch. The soil is covered with a layer of mold, an unpleasant putrefactive smell spreads. Fighting the disease at this stage is no longer possible. The plant is pulled out and burned, the soil in this place is disinfected by spilling with a 5% solution of copper sulfate. Preventive measures are similar to those used to protect against gray mold.

It is almost impossible to notice the development of root rot at an early stage.

Harvesting and storage

The crop is ready for harvesting almost as soon as the snow melts. The highest concentration of vitamins, minerals, essential oils, phytoncides and other healthy substances in the leaves of wild garlic is observed in April. But it should be borne in mind that the earlier the greens are cut, the more time it takes for the plant to recover. The bulbs, on the other hand, are dug up at the end of summer, when they reach their maximum size. Used as food and arrows. They are even softer and juicier than leaves. After flowering, which occurs in May, the harvest is stopped - the greens are noticeably coarser.

The yield of wild garlic is very good, but you need to collect the leaves so that it is not to the detriment of the plants.

The rosette of wild garlic, as a rule, consists of three to five leaves. You can cut (just cut, not pull out or twist) the top two or three. The lowest leaf necessarily remains on the plant so that it recovers faster the next year. In the current season, there will be no new greenery. Adult specimens from the age of five can be cut completely. The yield of wild garlic is not bad - about 1.5 kg of green mass is obtained from 1 m². In adult plants, this figure reaches 3 kg.

When fermented, the benefits of wild garlic practically do not suffer

To always be with the harvest, it is advisable to plant wild garlic in at least three different places with an interval of one or two years. Each season, the leaves will be cut from only one garden bed, the remaining two will have the opportunity to recover.

After flowering, the leaves of wild garlic are no longer cut off - at this time they are not so delicate and useful

Fresh wild garlic is most useful. Leaves and bulbs are added to salads. Also, you can prepare a very tasty seasoning for meat and fish dishes from them, mixing with sour cream and chili peppers. In the Caucasian countries, the bulbs are simply eaten in bite with bread sprinkled with salt. At room temperature, the leaves will remain fresh for 4–5 days, in the refrigerator for a week or a week and a half.

Salad with wild garlic - just a storehouse of vitamins and minerals

The plant is very useful for humans, but it is not recommended for feeding wild garlic. The milk changes color to reddish-yellow, the meat acquires an unpleasant aftertaste.

To preserve wild garlic for a long time, leaves and bulbs are fermented, salted, pickled. Least of all nutrients are lost during fermentation. You can freeze them. But for drying wild garlic is unsuitable. After this procedure, it almost completely loses its characteristic taste, aroma, and benefits.

Not only leaves and bulbs are eaten, but also wild garlic flower arrows

Video: health benefits of wild garlic

Ramson is not yet very popular among Russian gardeners. But this is completely undeserved. In spring it is practically the only fresh greens, an irreplaceable source of vitamins and minerals. The plant is very unpretentious, even a gardener without any experience is able to cultivate wild garlic on his site.

  • Print

27 years old, higher education in law, broad outlook and interest in a variety of topics.

Rate the article:

(2 votes, average: 4.5 out of 5)

Share with your friends!


Ranunculus

Ranunculus (Ranunculus) is also called the garden buttercup (Asian). The birthplace of such a plant belonging to the buttercup family is Asia Minor. The names of these flowers were given by the scientist Pliny, who lived in ancient times. From Latin ranunculus translates as "frog", the fact is that most species of such flowers prefer to grow in swampy places. In the 16th century, this plant was brought from Turkey to England and gained great popularity among flower growers there. However, since the end of the 19th century, it has lost its former popularity, but now these flowers are in increasing demand every year. At the moment, this genus unites more than 600 different species of ranunculus. If you cut a flower of such a plant and place it in a vase, then it will retain its freshness throughout the crescent. Italians call the garden buttercup "golden buttons of meadows." There is a famous legend that Jesus turned small stars into buttercups and gave them to his mother as a sign of love and respect ...


Features of growing cosmos as a culture

Kosmeya (its second name is "space") is an unpretentious plant, quite easy to care for, even a novice gardener can cope with the task of growing it. However, here too there are rules and subtleties that must be adhered to.

Cosmeya came from the southern latitudes, but, as it turned out, she also liked the climate of the middle and northern regions, and she began to march through the cities and villages, gaining more and more distribution, and at the same time the people's love.

Kosmeya is an unpretentious and unpretentious flower, which, however, blooms amicably and very effectively

Kosmeya loves warmth and light, especially for perennial varieties. She has well developed roots, so drought does not pose a great threat to the plant.

Kosmeya takes root on almost any soil, but it blooms most beautifully and most luxuriantly on light soils with good drainage and low acidity.

For cosmos, a sunny, but at the same time protected from strong winds, place on the site is required. The flower also feels good in a shaded place, however, being deprived of such a beloved sun, it will use all its strength to build up lush greenery to the detriment of flowering.

Video: acquaintance with cosmeia

Varieties

Like many flowers, cosme has many varieties that are divided into several categories. Some are perennial, others are double-pinnate (a variety common in the European territory of Russia), and there are sulfur-yellow cosmos.

  1. Cosmeya is double-feathery. An annual variation known to everyone and everyone, which is planted in parks and squares, in the courtyards of city houses and front gardens. Its flowers reach a diameter of 10 cm.The height of the plant reaches one and a half meters, so this variety is often used to decorate walls, fences, as well as the edges of paths. It reproduces well by itself by self-seeding.In our latitudes, the double-feathery species of cosmos has been living for a long time, and therefore managed to create many new varieties, among which Dazzler, Radiance, Purity and Sonata enjoy particular success, which, in turn, is divided into Pink, White and Carmine (according to the color of the flowers).
  2. Kosmeya is sulfur-yellow. It belongs to the category of annuals, however, it is more dependent on solar heat, and therefore in a cold summer (which does not happen so rarely in mid-latitudes) it will feel bad. But in the southern regions it is the place - there it will show itself in all its glory. In height, it is the same as double-pinnate, but inferior in size to flowers (no more than 5 cm). The buds are orange-red, like a living sun - this is the original color of the plant, on the basis of which varieties with other colors were bred. The most famous varieties of sulfur-yellow cosme are Bilbo and Krest Lemon.
  3. Cosmeya is blood-red. The flower is very similar to sulfur-yellow in its dependence on the heat, and in the middle lane it makes sense to grow it only at home on the balcony. It is a perennial variety.
  4. Terry kosmeya... The fruit of selection work, which is distinguished by lush dahlia-like flowers and thickened stems to keep all this floral weight. This species has many varieties and colors, among which are the Golden Valley (blooms until October), Polydor Fox (magnificent orange and scarlet inflorescences), as well as Cranberry Click and Red Pipe (only red flowers).

A big plus of terry varieties obtained as a result of selection is that they do not change color as a result of sowing seeds collected by hand after flowering.

Varietal variety of plants in the photo


What to plant

Planting material is cuttings or seedlings (rooted cuttings). Saplings or cuttings are of two types:

  1. Vaccinated
  2. Own-rooted.

In those areas where the soil freezes deep and there is a risk of frost damage to the roots, the planting of grafted seedlings is practiced. Also, this type of planting material is used in places where the soil is infected with phylloxera. If the weather conditions are favorable, the winters are not too cold and the soil is free of phylloxera, native-rooted grapes are cultivated. You can plant an already blossoming and strong seedling, or you can also plant a cutting, which will begin its growth directly in the open field.

Grafted seedlings are much more resistant to low temperatures and some diseases.

Cuttings (shanks)

Growing seedlings from cuttings is perhaps the main method for propagating grapes. This is a fairly simple method that even a novice gardener can handle. The most important thing is to get the stems of the variety that you would like to plant and know how to germinate the cuttings correctly. In autumn, when the leaves fall off, but even before frost it is necessary:

  • Cut from the vine of your favorite grapes cuttings with a diameter of at least 5 mm with 5-7 buds
  • Treat them with a solution of 1% copper sulfate to destroy disease spores
  • Soak for one to two days in water
  • Dry in the fresh air until water droplets disappear and put in a plastic bag, into which, if possible, pour sawdust.
  • Storage temperature 6-7 ° C, humidity just below 100 percent.

In the spring, the saved cuttings are kept in water for some time until the roots appear. Then they are planted in open ground.

Graft

It is advisable to vaccinate in the spring. Of course, each term has its own rules according to which this operation should be carried out. What does the vaccine give? This manipulation allows you to make the grape plant more resistant to various diseases and pests. In addition, grafting makes it possible to get completely different varieties on one root system. With this manipulation, you can rejuvenate the grapes. To develop new varieties with improved taste.

Grafting grapes is a rather complicated procedure that requires some training and skills.

Layers

Propagation of grapes by layering is a fairly simple method and has been known since ancient times. The advantage of this method is that you can easily renew an old vine bush, grow new seedlings or fill an empty space with a new plant next to the mother bush.

Any healthy and sufficiently developed shoot is selected in the vineyard. A small groove 10-20 cm deep is dug for it. Then the shoot is laid in it, fixed with wire brackets and sprinkled with earth and humus on top. The end of the vine must remain above the ground. It must be strengthened by tying it to a support. Further, the vine planted in the groove must be watered with water, having previously dissolved a small amount of manganese in it. Up to slightly pink. When the shoot has a full-fledged root system, it can be separated from the mother tree.

In the hot season, the layers must be watered at least three times a month.


Further care

A young tree needs more care than an adult one. Be sure to observe the following rules:

  1. Watering. A young plant is watered every 2 weeks. For 1 m² use 4 buckets of water at room temperature. Do not allow the soil around the nut to dry out, it is important to ensure that there is no stagnation of moisture. If you water the nut more often than 1 time in 14 days, it will endure worse winter cold snaps.
  2. Top dressing. If enough fertilizer was applied during planting, there is no need to feed the tree for the first 3 years. Then, nitrogen fertilizers are applied every spring, and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the fall.
  3. Pruning. It begins to be carried out from the second year after disembarkation. In the process, a crown is formed, weak, damaged, dry branches are removed. The procedure is performed every year.

Optimal conditions for growing walnuts at home

When growing indoor walnut, it is important to create optimal conditions:

  1. The plant should be on the south or west windowsill. In winter, it is recommended to take the walnut out to the balcony.
  2. Room temperatures are suitable for growing walnut trees, but higher temperatures are also beneficial. In winter, you need to ensure the nut is dormant. To do this, he is taken out into a room with a temperature not higher than + 12 ° C.
  3. Water the nut about once a week. Do not allow the soil to dry out or moisture stagnation.
  4. The tree is fed in the same way as the street walnut. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in the spring and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the fall.
  5. When the plant reaches the desired height, pinch the top. The crown is formed by removing unnecessary, weak and inward-directed shoots. All damaged and dry parts are also cut off.
  6. In winter, no top dressing is applied, the plant is watered less often.


Watch the video: Onion Farming from Start to Finish and why horticulture - Part 1