Miscellanea

Protection of apple, pear and quince from diseases and pests

Protection of apple, pear and quince from diseases and pests


Protection of pome crops from diseases and pests

Botrytis, gray rot

One of the most important factors affecting the yield and quality of fruits is the protection of plants from diseases and pests

Pome crops are exposed to the harmful effects of the greatest number of pests and diseases in comparison with other fruit crops. Unfortunately, modern programs created to combat pathogens often do not provide a consistently high result of plant protection.

Weevil beetle

First of all, this is due to a sharp change in the growing conditions of the culture, an increase in stress factors, a deterioration of the immune system of plants, the appearance of more aggressive pathogens, an increase in the resistance (immunity) of the pathogen to pesticides, a change in the typical symptoms of diseases.

The annual use of the same drugs and defense systems contributes to natural selection and an increase in the number of parasites resistant to them.

Cytosporous desiccation

The increased activity of trade and exchange of planting material without a system of control over the phytosanitary state, especially imported from other regions and neighboring countries, contributes to the spread and development of diseases and pests in new territories that are not typical for them.

For example, in 2008-2009 in the Central Black Earth Region, a similar case was observed with a parasite new to the zone - the Schlechtendahl tick.

Gall mite

The key to successful protection of plants from diseases and pests is meteorological monitoring of diseases and observation of the functional state of plants, photosynthetic activity, etc.

Meteorological observations make it possible to more accurately determine the timing of the treatment of plants from pathogens, and the functional state of plants - the degree of pesticide load.

All of the above should be taken into account and, to one degree or another, correct the main widely used method of calendar treatments according to the phenophases of plant development.


System of protection of pome crops by phenophases of plant development

PhenophasesHarmful objectsProtective measures
Resting kidneyHibernating stages of parasites (mites, coccids, coppers, scutes, aphids, moths, false scabs, scab, leafworms, etc.)Removal of dead and affected branches, cleaning boles from dead bark, collection and burning of leaf litter and removed branches. In years with a high number of pests, at the onset of positive temperatures, the crown is treated with a solution of vaseline oil - 5-10 ml / l.
Swelling of the kidney
Bud opening (green cone) Mouse's ear Green bud Separation of buds
Apple blossom beetleInsecticide Calypso 48% KS - 0.3 l / ha, Aktara 25% WDG - 0.125 kg / ha, Kinmix - 0.25 ml / l, Decis, ke - 0.2 ml / l, Splender - 0.2 ml / l, Vesta 007 - 1 tab. / 10l. Carry out processing on sunny days at temperatures above 12 ° C. When high numbers of weevils repeat the treatment in the green kidney phase (phenophase 5) Fufanon - 1 ml / l, Karbofos, SP - 9 g / l.
ScabAt temperatures above 12 ° C - copper-containing preparations: Cuproxat - 2.5-5 g / l, Kartotsid - 4-6 g / l, copper oxychloride, SP - 4 g / l, Abiga-PIK - 5 g / l, Poliram DF - 2 kg / ha.
Apple mothRemoving spider nests.
Leaf rollers, aphidsFufanon - 1 ml / l, Karbofos - 8-9 g / l, Mitak - 3 ml / l, Kinmix - 0.25 ml / l, Citcor - 0.15 ml / l, Danitol - 1 ml / l and others pyrethroids. At temperatures up to 15 ° C, it is better to use pyrethroids, above 15 ° C - Karbofos, Fufanon, Mitak. At temperatures above 20 ° C and a moderate number of pests (at the level of no more than 5 individuals per 100 leaf rosettes) - biological products such as Lepidocid, p -2-3 g / l, Lepidocid tab. -4-6 tab. / 10l, Lepidotsid, sc -2-3 g / l, Bicol, sp-6-16 g / l.
MitesApollo - 0.4 ml / l, Mitak - 3 ml / l, Neoron - 1.5 ml / l, Danitol - 1 g / l, Fitoverm - 1.5 ml / l, Akarin - 2 ml / l. Danitol is best used at temperatures up to 15 ° C, Neoron, Mitak, Akarin, Fitoverm - above 18 ° C, Fitoverm should not be applied to wet leaves. At a temperature of 18-27 ° C, colloidal sulfur can also be used - 8 g / l, such treatment simultaneously suppresses powdery mildew
Powdery mildewRemoval of affected shoots.
Rose budScabFungicides Horus 70% WDG - 0.2 kg / ha, Tersel - 2.5 kg / ha, Skor 25% EC - 0.2 l / ha, Delan 70% WG - 0.6 kg / ha, But 50% WDG - 0.14 kg / ha, Poliram DF, 70% WDG - 2.0 kg / ha, Fundazol 50% SP - 1.0 kg / ha, Vectra - 0.3 ml / l.
Leaf rollers, fruit weevils, fruit mites, sawflies, aphidsFastak 10% EC - 0.3 l / ha, Dursban 48% EC - 2.0 l / ha, Karate 5% EC - 0.4 l / ha.
BloomPowdery mildewTreat with sulfur-based preparations. At temperatures from 18 ° С to 27 ° С (especially in humid weather), in order to avoid burns, treat with sulfur colloid - 8 g / l, sulfur-cumulus - 8 g / l, Tiovit jet - 3-8 g / l. After 7-10 days, repeat the treatment.
ScabIn the case of frequent and heavy precipitation, apply Speed ​​- 0.2 ml / l (on an apple tree, the last treatment period is 20 days, the frequency rate is 4 times per season; on a pear, respectively, 14 and 4), Vectra, sc - 0.2-0.3 ml / l (30 and 3), Strobe - 0.2 g / l (35 and 3). All drugs also act on powdery mildew. In addition to preventing infection, Strobi, Vectra, Skor are able to eliminate it.
Monilial burnIn the evening, 0.4% Polycarbacin is used. Affected shoots and wood are cut and burned.
Falling petalsMiner moth, aphidsBitoxibacillin P (BA-1500 EA / mg) - 2 kg / ha
Ovary growth before June abscissionPowdery mildewAt t up to 27 ° C, in order to avoid burns, treat with sulfur colloid - 8 g / l, sulfur-cumulus - 8 g / l, Tiovit jet - 3-8 g / l.
Scab0.4% Polycarbacin or Polychom, Cuproxat -2.5-5 g / l, Kartocid -4-6 g / l, copper oxychloride, cn 4 g / l, Abiga-PIK -5 g / l.
Apple sawfly, apple moth, suckers, scoops, leaf rollers, aphidsFufanon - 1 ml / l, malofos - 9 g / l, Fury - 0.15 ml / l (up to 18 ° C), Leptocid new, ke - 0.2 ml / l (up to 18 ° C), Bitoxibacillin, p -4-10 g / l, Fitoverm - 0.2 ml / l, Akarin - 0.3 ml / l, Sumi-alpha - 0.5 ml / l, Decis, ke - 0.2 ml / l, Mitak - 3 g / l. Repeat the treatment after 2-3 weeks.
MothsLepidocide, p or ck - 20-30 g, Lepidocide, tab. - 4-6 tab., Bicol, cn - 60-160 g (5 and 2), Bitoxibacillin, p - 40-80 g, Bitoxibacillin, tab. - 8-16 tab / l. Repeat the treatment after 10 days.
MitesNeoron - 1.5 ml / l, Mitak - 3 ml / l, Fitoverm - 1.5 ml / l, Akarin - 2 ml / l, colloidal sulfur - 8 g / l, Tiovit jet - 8 g / l.
Fruit growth before ripeningScabFungicides But 50% VDG - 0.15 kg / ha, Delan 70% VG - 0.6 kg / ha, Speed ​​- 0.2 ml / l, Vectra - 0.3 ml / l, Strobi - 0.2 g / l, copper oxychloride - 4 g / l (up to 20 ° C), alternate and repeat the treatments 2-3 times, observing the waiting times for the preparations.
Powdery mildewColloidal sulfur - 8 g / l, sulfur-cumulus - 8 g / l, Tiovit jet - 3-8 g / l.
Apple moth, leafwormAlternation of preparations Fufanon - 1 ml / L, Karbofos - 9 g / L, Fury - 0.15 ml / L (up to 18 ° C), Leptocid new, ke - 0.2 ml / L (up to 18 ° C), Bitoxibacillin , p - 4-10 g / l, Fitoverm - 0.2 ml / l, Akarin - 0.3 ml / l, Sumi-alpha - 0.5 ml / l, Decis, ke - 0.2 ml / l, Mitak - 3 g / l.
MitesNeoron - 1.5 ml / l, Mitak - 3 ml / l, Fitoverm - 1.5 ml / l, Akarin - 2 ml / l, colloidal sulfur - 8 g / l, Tiovit jet - 8 g / l.
Fruit rotRemoval of volunteers, rotten fruits, diseased branches.
Fruit ripeningFruit rot, apple mothRemoval of mummified and rotten fruits from trees, which are the source of diseases.
Post-harvest periodRodents, powdery mildew, spots, scab, phomopsiosis, cytosporosis and other fungal diseasesTie the trunks of the trees with a net from the mouse-like rodents. In the middle of the leaf fall, treat the foliage with a 5% urea solution. For the prevention of phomopsiosis and cytosporosis, treat the soil of the trunk circles with the fungicide Ridomil Gold at a concentration of 0.2%. Remove and burn diseased trees and individual branches.

Apple scab on fruits, initial stage of development

The timing of treatment against insect pests is more accurately determined by their number. Protection against the codling moth should be carried out if more than 6 insects are found in pheromone traps hanging in the garden in pheromone traps.

During one growing season, this pest is able to change several generations, therefore, spraying from it must be carried out 2-3 times, especially in years with an extended summer. Treatments from apple blossom beetle and leafworm should be started when their number increases to 5 insects per tree.

Apple moth

Protection against ticks is carried out in the presence of three individuals on the leaf, from the apple sawfly 3-4 eggs on sepals, from the honeydew and aphids - when 10% of the shoots are populated.

Weather conditions are of great importance for the choice of drugs.

Pyrethroids (synthetic esters of chrysanthemum acid) are effective only at air temperatures up to + 15 ° С, organophosphorus insecticides and acaricides - above + 15 ° С. Fungicides Strobi and Zato provide high efficiency at temperatures below + 5 ° C and precipitation.

Humpback treehopper

Copper preparations at low temperatures and high humidity cause the formation of a "net" on the fruit and the development of brown spot on the leaves.

Preparations containing sulfur at temperatures above + 25 ° C cause leaf burns. When precipitation falls, contact fungicides are washed off and become ineffective.

When carrying out protective measures, it is necessary to provide for the alternation of pesticides of various mechanisms of action; it is necessary to use drugs of a contact and systemic nature.

Fruit damage with a leaf roll

For convenience and high labor productivity, treatment against pests must be carried out with tank mixtures, mixing compatible preparations in one tank.

Since most pesticides are highly toxic and highly toxic substances, safety rules must be followed at all stages of protective measures.

Tying the trunk with a rodent net

reference

Pesticides (lat. pestis - infection and lat. caedo - I kill) - chemicals used for pest control.

Pesticides combine groups of substances:
herbicidesused for weed control,
arboricidesagainst weedy woody vegetation,
insecticidesagainst insect pests,
acaricides - to combat ticks, nematicides - against nematodes,
fungicidesfungus-destroying parasites, antibiotics (antiseptics, bactericides) - against bacteria,
zoocidesdestroying harmful warm-blooded animals,
rodenticides - against rodents, etc.

By the nature of the action, pesticides are divided into contact (destroying a harmful object in direct contact with it) and systemic (penetrating into plant tissues and killing pests parasitizing on them).

Evgeny Sirotkin,
candidate of agricultural sciences

Read also about the pear:
• How to deal with apple scab
• The main reasons for the death of apple trees

Protection of fruit and berry crops from pests and diseases

In home gardens, special attention should be paid to protecting plants from pests and diseases.

The main pests of orchards in the northern and central regions of the USSR are apple sucker, gray and green aphids, apple flower beetle, ringed silkworm, goldtail, hawthorn, apple moth, apple moth and fruit mites. Among the diseases in the gardens are scab of apple and pear, rot of fruits. Berry plants damage aphids, gooseberry moth, raspberry beetle, raspberry-strawberry weevil from diseases, berry crops damage currant anthracnose, gooseberry powdery mildew, white spot, strawberry gray rot, etc.

In the regions of the southern strip of the USSR, the main garden pests include scale insects (Californian, purple, acacia, plum), apple moth, leafworms, golden moth, unpaired and ringed silkworms, apple blossom beetle, brant, honeydew and others from diseases of fruit and berry plants in scab, black crayfish, powdery mildew, spotting, fruit rot are common in these areas.

In the fight against pests and diseases in backyard gardens, the following activities are carried out.

In the fall, after the fall of leaves, the fallen leaves are necessarily collected and burned and the trunks are dug up, and preferably the entire area.

They clean the dead bark from the boles and main branches on burlap and burn it. This measure is used against the codling moth, gray aphid, ticks and other pests.

In October - November, the stems and main branches of fruit trees are coated with a mixture of lime (2 parts) and clay (1 part), diluted with water to a creamy state. This is done to protect the bark of trees from the effects of sudden temperature fluctuations in winter and early spring. They remove the winter nests of hawthorns, golden-tails, dried fruits and leaves, cut out dry and damaged branches, as well as shoots on which eggs are laid by the ringed silkworm, and immediately burn them.

In the spring, before bud break, fruit trees, currant and gooseberry bushes are sprayed with a 6-8% emulsion of carbolineum or mineral oil (600-800 g of oil per 10 liters of water). This technique is used against scale insects, aphid eggs, honeydew, red and brown ticks, leaf rollers and other pests.

During the budding period, the trees are sprayed with a 4% solution of soap (400 g of soap for 10 liters of water) or a 0.2% solution of anabazine sulfate and 0.4% soap against aphids (for 10 liters of water, take 20 g of poison and 40 g soap). Against weevils and various caterpillars, spraying is done with 1% DDT oil emulsion (100 g of poison per 10 liters of water).

During mass reproduction of weevils, fruit trees and raspberries are additionally pollinated with DDT dust at the rate of 100-150 g per tree and 6-10 g per raspberry bush. Trees are pollinated at the beginning of the flight of weevils, and raspberries - after the appearance of buds on it.

At the beginning of the emergence of buds, trees are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid (against scab) mixed with 0.15-0.2% Parisian greenery and 0.3-0.4% lime (for 10 liters of water 15-20 g of poison and 30-40 g of lime). Instead of Parisian greenery, you can spray with a 3% aqueous suspension of DDT dust (for 10 liters of water, 300 g of dust, DDT). Against leaf rollers and other leaf-gnawing caterpillars, repeat the same spraying after flowering and during the period of fruit formation. Subsequent spraying is carried out after 20 days.

In the case of a strong infection of fruit trees and bushes of true currants, mites are sprayed with a 0.05% emulsion of thiophos (5 g of thiophos per 10 liters of water). Fruit trees are sprayed immediately after flowering, and black currants during the budding period.

With the appearance of a carrion, damaged by caterpillars of the moth, trapping belts made of old burlap, gauze or paper are applied to the apple and pear trees to catch these caterpillars. Fishing belts are examined every ten days and caterpillars are selected from them.

Carrion and rotten fruits are regularly harvested throughout the summer. Unsuitable for use fruits are taken out of the garden and buried in the ground. During the summer, dried and diseased branches periodically peel off and burn. Branches damaged by black crayfish are cut out, capturing live wood, and the wound is covered with carbolineum.

With the mass distribution of gooseberry moth and gall midge (on currants and gooseberries), the soil is dusted with hexachlorane, ”it is added under each bush for 50-100 g. This work is carried out in early spring, before the blooming of flowers and leaves.

Against aphids, sawfly larvae and diseases on currants and gooseberries, they are sprayed immediately after flowering with 1 percent Bordeaux mixture with the addition of 0.15-0.2 percent of Parisian greenery, 0.15-0.2 percent of nicotine sulfate or anabazine sulfate and 0.3-0.4 percent soap. For 10 liters of 1% Bordeaux liquid take 15-20 g of Parisian greens, 15-20 g of nicotine sulfate with the addition of 30-40 g of soap. This spraying is repeated after 10-15 days.

Instead of spraying against aphids, dusting with DDT dust can be applied immediately after flowering.

To combat gooseberry powdery mildew in late autumn and early spring, the bushes and the soil around them are sprayed with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate (300 grams of ferrous sulfate per 10 liters of water). In addition, 3-4 spraying is carried out with a 0.08-0.1 percent solution of calcium arsenate with the addition of 0.4 percent lime (for 10 liters of water, 8-10 g of calcium arsenate with the addition of 40 g of lime). The first spraying is carried out immediately after the formation of leaves, and subsequent spraying after flowering, every 8-10 days.

Strawberries affected by raspberry-strawberry weevils, leaf beetles and beetles are pollinated with DDT dust during the period of bud appearance at the rate of 2-2.5 g per square meter of area. Against gray berry rot and leaf spot, strawberries are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid before flowering. The same spraying is repeated after picking the berries.

To combat pests and diseases of fruit and berry crops, it is necessary to have on the farm (it is possible for several yards) a hand sprayer and a set of the most important chemicals: copper sulphate, lime, Parisian greens, DDT dust, hexachlorane dust, DDT mineral-oil emulsion, carbolineum, chlorten , anabazine or nicotine sulfate. When using chemicals, you must always remember that Parisian greens, thiophos, anabazine sulfate and nicotine sulfate - strong poisons DDT and hexachlorane dust are also harmful to humans and animals. Therefore, in handling them, you need to be very careful and do not process orchards and berry fields less than 3-4 weeks before picking fruits or berries.

The most common drug - 1 percent Bordeaux liquid - is prepared as follows: 1 kilogram of copper sulfate is taken for 100 liters of water and 1 kilogram of quicklime copper sulfate is dissolved in a small amount of water in a wooden or earthenware dish, and then the amount of water is brought to 50 liters of lime quenched separately in another container and diluted with 50 liters of water too. The resulting milk of lime is filtered, then a solution of copper sulfate is poured into it, stirring constantly, and the Bordeaux liquid is ready. Prepare it immediately before use.

A mixture of Bordeaux liquid with Parisian greens, nicotine sulfate or other chemicals is prepared by weighing Paris greens or nicotine sulfate in accordance with the specified concentration (for example, at a concentration of 0.2 percent per 100 liters of Bordeaux liquid, take 200 g of Parisian greens) and dissolve in a small amount of Bordeaux liquid, and then poured into the total amount and mix thoroughly. Before filling the sprayers, all solutions are mixed and shaken again.

Dusting trees and berries in a backyard garden is usually carried out using gauze bags. They are filled with dust and shaken slightly over the plants. When processing tall trees, bags of dust are tied to sticks or light poles.


DISEASES AND TREATMENT OF APPLE, PEAR, QUINS, BLACK ROWAN AND OTHER SEED CROPS

Causative agent: mushroom Fusicladium pirinum

Symptoms: on the leaves on the reverse side there are spots of olive and yellowish color with a velvety bloom. Fruits become covered with dark spots and rot.

Sources of infection: the fungus persists on fallen leaves.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use biological products produced by LLC NVP BashInkom (Fitosporin-AS, Gumi-Omi FRUIT - trees and shrubs, Bogaty-micro Cu, Reanimator).

Causative agent: mushroom Monilia fructigena

Symptoms: leaves, inflorescences affected by the fungus acquire a brown spot, on which gray growths appear later, wither and die. The fruits also turn brown, soften, and an alcoholic aftertaste appears.

Sources of infection: spores persist in the affected plant and are carried by the wind.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use biological products of LLC NVP BashInkom (Fitosporin-M UNIVERSAL (powder, liquid), Gumi-Omi FRUIT - trees and shrubs, Reanimator, Rich-micro).

Pathogen: mushroom Podosphaera leucotricha.

Symptoms: a white bloom appears on the leaves, the leaves curl into a tube, dry out and die off.

Sources of infection: spores of the fungus are carried through the air.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use biological products from LLC NVP BashInkom (Fitosporin-M UNIVERSAL (powder, liquid), Gumi-Omi FRUIT - trees and shrubs, Rich-micro Cu).

Causative agent: pathogenic fungus Gymnosporangium sabinae.

Symptoms: yellow, orange and rusty-brown convex spots appear on the leaves, sometimes affecting the fruit.

Sources of infection: carried by the wind.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use biological products from LLC NVP BashInkom (Fitosporin-M RASSADA, VEGETABLES, BERRIES, FRUIT (liquid), Gumi-Omi FRUIT - trees and shrubs, Potassium permanganate Bashinkom (potassium permanganate), BioPolimik, Reanimator).

Causative agent: mushroom Cytospora leucostoma.

Symptoms: the bark dries up, flakes off, turns reddish-brown.

Sources of infection: the causative agent of the disease persists in the infected foliage.

Protection measures: all damaged areas of the bark are cut off and the wounds are covered with clay or garden pitch - Var Sad Pchelka. Dry and damaged branches are regularly removed, tree trunks are whitened in autumn - whitewash Doctor Garden produced by NVP "BashInkom", BioPolimik-Cu.

Causative agent: mushroom - Gymnosporangium juniperinum

Symptoms: orange-red spots appear on the leaves, orange spots on the back of the leaf, which turn brown over time. Leaves fall.

Sources of infection: the apple tree is an intermediate host. The mushroom hibernates and develops on the Cossack juniper.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use the biological products Fitosporin-M RASSAD, VEGETABLES, BERRIES, FRUITS (liquid), Gumi-Omi FRUITS - trees and shrubs, Potassium permanganate BashInkom (potassium permanganate), BioPolimik-Cu.

Causative agent: mushrooms Phyllosticta mali and Ph. Briardi.

Symptoms: when infected with Phyllosticta mali, the leaves are covered with large angular dark yellow spots with a light middle and brown border, Ph. briardi - spots on the leaves are round or angular, light yellow, without bordering. Leaves fall.

Sources of infection: the infection persists in the affected fallen leaves.

Protection measures: the use of biological products of the Fitosporin-M TREATMENT series (powder, liquid), Rich-micro, Reanimator is recommended.

Causative agent: mushroom Alternaria mali Roberts.

Symptoms: the disease manifests itself in the form of a velvety black coating on the bark of the tree, and also affects the leaves and fruits.In rainy weather, the leaves turn brown, wither and eventually fall off, the branches and young shoots also gradually dry out. On the fruits, first spots of a red hue appear, which gradually become dark brown, and later the fruit completely darkens - rots.

Sources of infection: the infection persists in the bark of branches and in plant debris.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use biological products Fitosporin-M RASSAD, VEGETABLES, BERRIES, FRUITS (liquid), Gumi-Omi FRUITS - trees and shrubs, Potassium permanganate BashIncom (potassium permanganate), Reanimator.

Causative agent: mushrooms Monilia fructigena

Symptoms: this type of fungus causes burns on the plant - browning and drying of both inflorescences and leaves, and fruits. Over time, gray growths appear on the affected brown areas. Rotten fruits with a sweet alcohol smell and taste, and withered leaves remain on the branches for a long time.

Sources of infection: spores are spread by wind, rain, insects.

Protection measures: it is necessary to collect all affected fruits and take them outside the site. The use of biological products is recommended: Fitosporin-M SEEDS, VEGETABLES, BERRIES, FRUITS (liquid), Gumi-Omi FRUITS - trees and shrubs, Rich-micro, Reanimator.

Pathogen: mushroom Armillaria mellea.

Symptoms: the fungus parasitizes the roots of trees and stumps, entangling them with a black net, causing the death of roots and trunks.

Sources of infection: the fungus remains in wood, soil, and affected plant debris.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use biological products DOCTOR SAD - medicinal whitewash garden, Potassium permanganate Bashinkom (potassium permanganate), Fitosporin-M UNIVERSAL (powder).

Causative agent: mushroom Podosphaera leucotricha.

Symptoms: a characteristic feature of this disease is a grayish-white bloom on plants. At later stages of the disease, the leaves begin to curl, and in the future they dry out altogether. In this case, the shoots themselves can also be deformed.

Sources of infection: spores of the fungus remain in the affected leaves and bark, in the buds of the shoots.

Protection measures: the use of biological products DOCTOR SAD, Potassium permanganate BashIncom (potassium permanganate), Reanimator is recommended.

Causative agent: mushroom Cytospora cydoniae Bub. et Kab.

Symptoms: the bark of the branches turns brown and dies off, gray-brown tubercles are formed.

Source of infection: the causative agent of the disease persists in the affected quince branches and in the affected bark of the trunks.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use biological products DOCTOR SAD - medicinal whitewash garden, Potassium permanganate Bashinkom (potassium permanganate), Fitosporin-M UNIVERSAL (powder).

Causative agent: mushroom Monilia cydoniae

Symptoms: flowers, ovaries, fruit twigs, young leaves turn brown and dry sharply. A grayish bloom appears on the affected areas. With a strong infection, the plant looks like burnt, which is often confused with winter freezing.

Source of infection: the disease persists in the affected plant debris and in the bark of the affected shoots.

Protection measures: The use of biological products is recommended: DOCTOR GARDEN - A medicinal whitewash garden, Potassium permanganate BashInkom (potassium permanganate) Fitosporin-M UNIVERSAL (powder).

Causative agent: mushroom Cylindrosporium cydoniae (Mont.) Schosch. (syn. Gloeosporium cydoniae Mont.)

Symptoms: dark brown spots appear on the leaves, small white dots form on the upper side of the leaf. The leaves turn yellow and fall off, and the branches dry up.

Source of infection: spores of the fungus remain in the bark of the tree and fallen leaves.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use biological products manufactured by LLC NVP BashInkom (Fitosporin-M SUPERUNIVERSAL QUICK-Dissolving (powder). Gumi-Omi FRUIT - trees and shrubs, Reanimator).

Causative agent: mushroom Entomosporium maculatum Lev. f. maculata (Lev.) Atk.

Symptoms: grayish or brown spots with black pads on the upper side of the leaf are formed on the leaves. Affected leaves dry out and fall off.

Source of infection: the infection persists in the affected plant debris.

Protection measures: the use of biological products is recommended: Fitosporin-M SUPERUNIVERSAL QUICK-SOLUBLE (powder), Gumi-Omi FRUIT - trees and shrubs, Reanimator.

Phylostic mottling is caused by two pathogenic fungi.

Causative agent 1: mushroom Phyllosticta cydoniae (Desm.) Sacc.

Symptoms 1: rounded or irregular brown spots appear on the leaves.

Causative agent 2: mushroom Phyllosticta velata Bub.

Symptoms 2: with this disease, the leaves become spotty - spots of brown shades with a red-brown border, round in shape, later holes remain in place of the spots. Leaves affected by the fungus Phyllosticta velata turn yellow very early, dry up and fall off.

Source of infection: the infection persists in the affected plant debris.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use the biological products Fitosporin-M SUPERUNIVERSAL QUICK-SOLUBLE (powder), Gumi-Omi FRUIT - trees and shrubs.

Causative agent: Tomato ringsport virus (ToRSV).

Symptoms: leaves wrinkle, become covered with ring spots, chlorosis, necrosis, jaundice. On the leaves, light and dark green areas alternate, which is characteristic of this disease.

Source of infection: transmitted with plant sap and nematodes.

Protection measures: it is recommended to use biopreparations Potassium permanganate BashInkom (potassium permanganate), DOCTOR SAD - medicinal whitewash garden, Fitosporin-M UNIVERSAL (powder).


Covering and protecting young trees

In November, it is necessary to have time to cover and protect young trees from freezing and various rodents. For those whose summer cottages and gardens are close to the forest, young apple trees, pears and other plants can be gnawed by hares. Now there are a lot of hares, they even run through the streets in our village. They love the bark of young plants, for them in winter it is a good treat. Each young tree must be protected from animals, because it will be a pity for their work and the time spent on growing an apple or pear until fruiting, it takes more than one year.


Protecting trees from rodents

At us for 5 years the pear began to bear fruit. This tree is still young, but with wonderful tasty fruits, we will be very sorry if someone chews on it. Therefore, we protect the pear from rodents every year from the moment of planting. 5 more young apple trees have been planted, one of them is columnar, the trees are 3-4 years old. We decided to protect these young trees from rodents by wrapping the trunk of the pear with plastic mesh, and the young apple trees with covering material. You can, of course, wrap each trunk of a young tree from the root and to a height of 1-1.5 m with nylon tights, they can also save trees from rodents. At the bottom, at the root, it is imperative to secure the tights well.

But we like to protect the trunks of young trees with plastic netting most of all. This net is well secured near the trunk with any wire or rope. At the bottom, we pin it tightly to the ground with iron staples. We wrap the trunk of a young tree near the ground with a small strip of covering material, on which we apply birch tar, and put 2-3 branches of elderberry, a sprig of mint and, if any, a little pyrethrum near the trunk itself. The smell of these plants scares off mice.


Birch tar

And if I wrap the entire trunk of a young tree with covering material, then I apply birch tar from below on the covering material, and under the material itself, near the trunk, I also put plants that mice are afraid of. Can be placed next to young trees and junipers. I put stones around the tree, and under them - burnt rubber, rodents don't like it either. Before the shelter from rodents, I process all trees and shrubs with Karbofos.


Protecting

Near each young tree, I add OMU autumn fertilizer to the soil. The fertilizer is granular, it is perfect for autumn plant feeding.


Autumn fertilizer

Also, we wrap some young shrubs, which are 2-3 years old, with covering material so that they do not freeze, and mulch the roots with peat 20-25 cm from the ground. And adult trees and shrubs are basically only treated against pests and fertilized every fall.


Protecting

All our trees and shrubs remain intact after winter and delight us with their harvest.


Protecting


Protecting

Take care of your garden pets, and they will delight you with their harvests!


Comments (3) "

[. ] reader, in the previous post I introduced you to the diseases of pome fruit trees. Today we are getting acquainted with stone fruit diseases [. ]

Why don't you let me copy from the page. Goons or what?

Comment by Gardener - 03/10/2014 @ 19:38

Dear gardener, the text cannot be copied from the page. This is protection against unscrupulous freelancers who steal texts and make money on it. But the image of the selected area of ​​the screen can be downloaded using the "FastStone Capture" program, which you can download on the Internet

Comment by Konstantin - 03/16/2014 @ 17:41


Why do apples and pears rot right on the tree?

- Tell me, please, what kind of disease affects the fruits of apples and pears? The fact is that the fruits rot right on the trees and most of all when it comes to maturity. How to deal with the disease?

Lapotentova L. Agro-town Moshchanitsa.

- Judging by the description, this is fruit rot (moniliosis). Quite a common and harmful disease in the conditions of our republic. In the last three years, it has become especially widespread both in the gardens of amateur gardeners and in industrial plantings. Hot and humid summers create optimal conditions for the development of moniliosis.

Rot occurs as a result of damage to the fruit by insects, hail or cracks caused by the development of scab. A small brown speck appears on the apple, which then covers the entire surface of the fruit with the formation of gray pads, the flesh becomes loose and unsuitable for fresh consumption or for processing. If the disease, as in your case, appears closer to autumn, then the fruits may acquire a black glossy color. You can meet this type of manifestation of moniliosis during storage. Unfortunately, already diseased fruits cannot be saved, therefore, prevention plays the main role in the fight against the disease - protection from diseases and pests. We begin the processing of apple and pear when the fruit is the size of a nut, and continue the entire period of active growth of the fruit. During this time, you will be able to make from 2-3 to 5 treatments. The last treatment should be no later than 30 days before harvest. Of the fungicides we use "Skor", "Fundazol" and "Tersen", while protecting against pests, in particular from the moth, we use insecticides "BI 58" and "Aktara". Today there are no varieties that are resistant to fruit rot. But there are varieties that are less susceptible to the disease. For example, winter varieties. It is they who have thicker skin and greater acidity of apple juice. For example, the Belarusian varieties "Imant", "Vesyalina", "Verbnae" will show very good field resistance to this disease with minimal protection on your part. In addition, agrotechnical methods of combating moniliosis are also of great importance. To do this, it is necessary to collect during the entire growing season and destroy damaged fruits. Timely protection, the correct choice of varieties, the use of sanitary methods to reduce the infectious stock of diseases - will allow you to enjoy the taste of apples from your own garden all year round.


Apple-tree, pear, quince 150 varieties - T.E.

Book: Apple, pear, quince 150 varieties
Author: T.E. Lushchits
Year: 2001
Genre: Growing apple, pear and quince
Publisher: Book House
ISBN: 985-428-338-0
Pages: 80
Language: Russian

Description: The book examines the biological characteristics, nutritional qualities and medicinal properties of apple, pear, quince. 150 varieties are described in detail, the features of their cultivation, means of protection against diseases and pests, as well as the timing and methods of harvesting, storage, preparation for future use and culinary recipes.


On our site you can download the book "Apple tree, pear, quince 150 varieties" Luschits T. E. free of charge and without registration, or buy the book in the online store.


Preparing the garden for spring processing

Traditionally treatment of trees in spring from pests begins with the preliminary preparation of fruit crops. This is largely due to the fact that sometimes in winter, individual branches on trees can freeze and die. That is why the plantings must first be carefully examined and the dead, non-viable branches must be carefully removed on them. For these purposes, it is best to use a hacksaw or fine-toothed file.

After pruning, old bark must be removed from tree trunks. This can be done with a metal brush. Please note that you cannot remove bark on the surface of young trees.

Since the soil around the trees also needs spring treatment, we recommend that you thoroughly clean the near-stem circle of plants from foliage and other plant debris. If you ignore this procedure, pests that have settled around the trunks of plants for the winter will begin to attack the plantings with the first heat.

Such simple preparatory care for horticultural crops greatly enhances the effectiveness of protective preparations. After that, you should decide than splashing fruit trees in spring and how often to do it.

For example, large horticultural farms, in order to obtain the maximum amount of fruit and berry products per season, carry out 10-16 spraying of trees. However, for a small orchard, no more than 4 treatments will be enough in accordance with the phases of plant life.

The main thing is to do this in a timely manner, before dangerous diseases and insects begin their harmful activity. And, given that pests wake up and begin at different times, it is very important to take care of the garden systematically.


Watch the video: Apple IPM Workshop: Part 2 Fire Blight u0026 Rusts